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Table 5 Main empirical findings and the evidence on the three models

From: How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005

Findings The social-cultural model The economic model The governance model
1. Informal payments are widespread in outpatient and inpatient services. + - +
2. More patients (52.8%) pay informal payments in inpatient care than in outpatient care (23.3%). - + +/-
3. The amounts paid in inpatient are larger than in outpatient care (fee-for-service) - + -
4. Almost 61.7 of the payments in outpatient and 68.6% in inpatient care are expected or requested. - - +
5. Positive but not statistically significant association of per capita income with probability and amounts of informal payments. - +/- +/-
6. The elderly are less likely to make informal payments (especially in outpatient). - + +/-
7. Rural areas patients seeking care in Tirana are more likely to pay and to have been explicitly requested an informal payment. - +/- +
8. Vulnerable patients (higher ages and poor health rated) are more likely to pay in inpatient care but not in outpatient care. - - +
9. Higher amount paid in hospitals located in Tirana. - + -
10. Rural patients visiting Tirana's hospitals are more likely to be requested to make informal payments. - +/- +
11. Higher educated patients pay more in inpatient care where the role of health insurance is weak and services are more intense. - + +/-
12. Primary education patients are requested to pay in inpatient services. - - +
  1. Note: The positive and negative signs in the table indicate if the evidence found from the data analysis (logit and OLS models in Table 3) support or not each of the models.