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Table 3 Logit and OLS estimations of the probability and the amount paid as informal payments to medical staff

From: How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005

  Odds ratio of paying informally to Medical Staff The amount of informal payments paying to Medical Staff Odds ratio if informal payments have been voluntary/requested by Medical Staff
  Outpatient service Inpatient service Outpatient service Inpatient service Outpatient Service Inpatient service
Household size 0.996 (0.030) 1.112** (0.050) 0.024 (0.022) -0.071** (0.035) 0.870*** (0.047) 0.939 (0.061)
Age of the individual 0.994** (0.003) 0.999 (0.005) 0.002 (0.002) 0.003 (0.004) 0.994 (0.006) 0.989 (0.007)
Gender 1.166 (0.131) 1.136 (0.190) 0.043 (0.087) 0.019 (0.144) 0.598** (0.128) 0.771 (0.203)
Urban/Rural 1.226* (0.147) 0.968 (0.215) 0.202** (0.091) 0.017 (0.192) 1.375 (0.303) 1.350 (0.465)
Log income/capita 1.046 (0.075) 1.080 (0.112) 0.075 (0.057) 0.110 (0.087) 0.733** (0.107) 0.914 (0.151)
Health insurance 0.782** (0.094) 0.542*** (0.101) -0.375*** (0.091) -0.071 (0.164) 0.998 (0.224) 0.962 (0.293)
Health rate (1 'v. poor' - 5 'v. good') 0.993 (0.069) 0.827* (0.089) -0.033 (0.058) 0.292*** (0.094) 0.898 (0.126) 0.789 (0.139)
Chronic illness 0.980 (0.155) 0.654* (0.157) -0.030 (0.123) 0.388* (0.217) 1.733* (0.515) 1.291 (0.515)
Education primary 1.124 (0.166) 1.074 (0.229) -0.091 (0.114) -0.092 (0.184) 1.417 (0.382) 1.839* (0.597)
Education university 0.292*** (0.120) 1.332 (0.558) 0.195 (0.353) 1.026*** (0.357) 2.783 (2.502) 1.167 (0.748)
Hospital in Tirana district    0.943 (0.228)    0.253 (0.214)    0.706 (0.263)
Rural/Urban x Hospital in Tirana district    1.044 (0.370)    0.231 (0.313)    2.785* (1.714)
Nr. of times visit outpatient health service/Days stayed in hospital 1.064 (0.061) 0.998 (0.004) -0.037 (0.044) -0.033*** (0.004) 0.892 (0.094) 1.006 (0.009)
Log informal amount paid      - - - - 1.197 (0.140) 1.663*** (0.177)
Constant      5.184*** (0.715) 4.627*** (1.134)     
Number of observations (N) 1963 671 457 354 457 354
R-squared      0.2191 0.3088     
Pseudo R2 0.0257 0.036      0.0001 0.0001
  1. Note: .01 - ***; .05 - **; .1 - *. Standard errors are in bracket