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Table 2 Descriptive statistics

From: How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005

  The incidence of paying informally The amount paid informally
Variables Outpatients services Inpatients services Outpatients services Inpatients services
Amount paid informally (in Lek) * - - - - 658.042 (2473.042) 1298.988 (2499.494)
Household size 4.594 (1.994) 5.028 (1.935) 4.731 (2.100) 5.249 (2.060)
Age of the individual 46.679 (24.573) 40.699 (22.818) 42.882 (25.413) 39.040 (23.211)
Gender (Female = 1) 0.583 (0.493) 0.577 (0.494) 0.617 (0.487) 0.599 (0.491)
Urban/Rural (Rural = 1) 0.450 (0.498) 0.557 (0.497) 0.519 (0.500) 0.590 (0.492)
Income/capita 9160.373 (7277.878) 8016.400 (6121.248) 8644.299 (6552.127) 7900.646 (6211.548)
Health Insurance (Without health insurance = 1) 0.625 (0.484) 0.486 (0.500) 0.540 (0.499) 0.404 (0.491)
Health rate (1 'v. poor' - 5 'v. good') 2.932 (0.983) 3.151 (1.149) 2.993 (0.979) 3.189 (1.152)
Chronic illness (Chronic illness = 1) 0.663 (0.473) 0.472 (0.500) 0.608 (0.489) 0.421 (0.494)
Without education (Without education = 1) 0.011 (0.105) 0.004 (0.067) 0.013 (0.114) 0.003 (0.053)
Education 8-years (Education 8-years = 1) 0.523 (0.500) 0.581 (0.494) 0.554 (0.498) 0.588 (0.493)
Secondary education (Secondary education = 1) 0.200 (0.400) 0.204 (0.403) 0.175 (0.380) 0.186 (0.390)
University education (University education = 1) 0.055 (0.227) 0.045 (0.207) 0.015 (0.123) 0.045 (0.208)
Hospitals in Tirana (Visiting in Tirana hospital = 1) - - 0.323 (0.468) - - 0.302 (0.460)
Hospital in the same district (Visiting in the same hospital district = 1) - - 0.528 (0.500) - - 0.599 (0.491)
Hospital in different district (Visiting in the different hospital = 1) - - 0.124 (0.329) - - 0.096 (0.295)
Hospital in foreign country (Visiting in foreign country hospital = 1) - - 0.025 (0.157) - - 0.003 (0.053)
Rural/Urban * Hospital in Tirana district (Rural patient visit in Tirana hospital = 1) - - 0.128 (0.335) - - 0.124 (0.330)
Nr of times visit outpatients care/Days stayed in Hospital 1.393 (0.933) 16.171 (20.154) 1.418 (0.966) 15.477 (17.744)
The incidence of paying informally (Paying informally = 1) 0.233 (0.423) 0.528 (0.500) - - - -
The incidence of voluntary/requested payments (Requested payments = 1) - - - - 0.617 (0.487) 0.686 (0.465)
Number of Observations 1963 671 457 354
  1. Note: *) In inpatient care the amount paid informally is the average per day in hospital.
  2. In outpatient care the amount paid informally is the average per visit.
  3. Standard errors are in bracket
  4. 100 ALL = 0.80 Euros in June 2005