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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in relation to dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in 23,388 schoolchildren, Ryukyus Child Health Study, Japan

From: Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children: The Ryukyus Child Health Study

  Eczema Rhinoconjunctivitis
Variable1 Prevalence (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)2 Prevalence (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)2
Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
   Q1 (10.7) 6.1 1.00 1.00 8.8 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (12.8) 6.8 1.13 (0.96-1.34) 1.10 (0.94-1.31) 7.6 0.86 (0.74-0.99) 0.86 (0.74-0.999)
   Q3 (14.2) 7.7 1.29 (1.10-1.51) 1.23 (1.05-1.45) 7.2 0.81 (0.69-0.94) 0.81 (0.70-0.95)
   Q4 (15.6) 6.5 1.08 (0.92-1.28) 1.02 (0.86-1.21) 7.9 0.89 (0.77-1.03) 0.89 (0.77-1.04)
   Q5 (18.0) 7.9 1.33 (1.13-1.56) 1.26 (1.07-1.48) 8.6 0.98 (0.85-1.13) 0.97 (0.83-1.12)
P for trend   0.005 0.04   0.96 0.83
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
   Q1 (1.3) 5.8 1.00 1.00 8.1 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (1.7) 6.9 1.20 (1.02-1.42) 1.16 (0.98-1.37) 8.2 1.01 (0.87-1.17) 1.01 (0.87-1.17)
   Q3 (2.0) 7.4 1.30 (1.10-1.53) 1.22 (1.04-1.45) 7.1 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 0.87 (0.74-1.01)
   Q4 (2.3) 6.9 1.21 (1.02-1.42) 1.12 (0.94-1.32) 8.1 1.00 (0.86-1.16) 0.99 (0.85-1.15)
   Q5 (2.8) 7.9 1.40 (1.19-1.64) 1.31 (1.11-1.54) 8.6 1.07 (0.93-1.24) 1.05 (0.90-1.22)
P for trend   0.0003 0.009   0.45 0.63
α-Linolenic acid (18:3 n-3)       
   Q1 (1.0) 5.8 1.00 1.00 8.6 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (1.3) 6.7 1.17 (0.99-1.39) 1.14 (0.96-1.35) 8.0 0.93 (0.80-1.08) 0.93 (0.80-1.08)
   Q3 (1.5) 7.5 1.32 (1.12-1.56) 1.25 (1.06-1.47) 7.2 0.82 (0.71-0.95) 0.82 (0.71-0.96)
   Q4 (1.8) 7.1 1.24 (1.05-1.46) 1.15 (0.97-1.36) 8.1 0.94 (0.81-1.09) 0.94 (0.81-1.09)
   Q5 (2.2) 8.0 1. 41 (1.20-1.66) 1.31 (1.12-1.55) 8.2 0.95 (0.82-1.10) 0.93 (0.80-1.08)
P for trend   < 0.0001 0.003   0.57 0.41
Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3)       
   Q1 (0.03) 6.4 1.00 1.00 8.3 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (0.07) 6.8 1.06 (0.90-1.25) 1.04 (0.88-1.23) 7.8 0.94 (0.81-1.10) 0.95 (0.82-1.11)
   Q3 (0.09) 7.1 1.10 (0.94-1.30) 1.07 (0.91-1.26) 7.6 0.92 (0.79-1.06) 0.91 (0.78-1.06)
   Q4 (0.12) 7.5 1.18 (1.002-1.38) 1.15 (0.98-1.35) 7.5 0.90 (0.78-1.05) 0.90 (0.77-1.05)
   Q5 (0.21) 7.2 1.13 (0.96-1.33) 1.12 (0.95-1.31) 8.9 1.09 (0.94-1.26) 1.10 (0.95-1.27)
P for trend   0.06 0.09   0.41 0.42
Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3)       
   Q1 (0.13) 6.9 1.00 1.00 8.5 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (0.20) 6.6 0.95 (0.81-1.12) 0.94 (0.80-1.11) 7.6 0. 89 (0.76-1.03) 0. 90 (0.77-1.05)
   Q3 (0.24) 7.5 1.08 (0.93-1.27) 1.04 (0.88-1.21) 7.6 0.88 (0.76-1.02) 0.86 (0.74-0.998)
   Q4 (0.30) 7.0 1.01 (0.86-1.18) 0.99 (0.84-1.16) 7.9 0.92 (0.79-1.06) 0.92 (0.79-1.06)
   Q5 (0.43) 7.0 1.01 (0.86-1.19) 1.01 (0.86-1.18) 8.5 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 1.00 (0.86-1.16)
P for trend   0.67 0.75   0.85 0.92
n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
   Q1 (7.1) 6.1 1.00 1.00 8.6 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (8.8) 6.8 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 1.07 (0.91-1.27) 7.9 0.91 (0.78-1.05) 0.91 (0.78-1.05)
   Q3 (10.1) 7.2 1.19 (1.01-1.40) 1.14 (0.96-1.34) 7.7 0.88 (0.76-1.02) 0.90 (0.77-1.05)
   Q4 (11.3) 7.0 1.15 (0.97-1.35) 1.08 (0.91-1.27) 7.5 0.86 (0.74-1.001) 0.87 (0.75-1.02)
   Q5 (13.5) 8.0 1.33 (1.13-1.56) 1.26 (1.07-1.48) 8.5 0.99 (0.86-1.15) 0.98 (0.85-1.14)
P for trend   0.001 0.01   0.71 0.68
Linoleic acid (18:2 n-6)       
   Q1 (6.9) 6.1 1.00 1.00 8.6 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (8.7) 6.8 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 1.08 (0.91-1.27) 7.9 0.91 (0.78-1.05) 0.91 (0.79-1.06)
   Q3 (9.9) 7.2 1.20 (1.02-1.41) 1.14 (0.97-1.34) 7.5 0.86 (0.74-1.002) 0.88 (0.76-1.03)
   Q4 (11.1) 6.9 1.13 (0.96-1.33) 1.06 (0.90-1.26) 7.5 0.86 (0.74-0.999) 0.87 (0.75-1.02)
   Q5 (13.3) 8.0 1.34 (1.14-1.57) 1.27 (1.08-1.49) 8.6 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 1.00 (0.86-1.15)
P for trend   0.001 0.01   0.77 0.76
Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6)       
   Q1 (0.07) 7.9 1.00 1.00 8.9 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (0.10) 7.5 0.95 (0.81-1.10) 0.92 (0.78-1.07) 7.8 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 0.88 (0.76-1.02)
   Q3 (0.12) 6.7 0.83 (0.71-0.98) 0.80 (0.68-0.94) 8.2 0.92 (0.79-1.06) 0.91 (0.78-1.05)
   Q4 (0.14) 6.3 0.79 (0.67-0.92) 0.76 (0.65-0.89) 7.5 0.84 (0.72-0.97) 0.83 (0.72-0.97)
   Q5 (0.17) 6.6 0.83 (0.71-0.97) 0.81 (0.69-0.95) 7.8 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 0.86 (0.74-0.997)
P for trend   0.002 0.0008   0.05 0.03
n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio       
   Q1 (0.17) 6.0 1.00 1.00 7.4 1.00 1.00
   Q2 (0.18) 7.1 1.20 (1.02-1.41) 1.17 (0.99-1.38) 7.8 1.06 (0.91-1.23) 1.05 (0.90-1.23)
   Q3 (0.20) 7.0 1.18 (0.997-1.39) 1.14 (0.96-1.34) 8.1 1.10 (0.94-1.28) 1.07 (0.92-1.25)
   Q4 (0.21) 7.6 1.28 (1.09-1.51) 1.21 (1.03-1.42) 8.0 1.08 (0.93-1.26) 1.04 (0.89-1.21)
   Q5 (0.23) 7.2 1.21 (1.03-1.43) 1.17 (0.99-1.38) 8.7 1.19 (1.03-1.38) 1.16 (0.99-1.35)
P for trend   0.02 0.07   0.03 0.11
  1. 1 Quintile medians in g/day adjusted energy intake using the residual method are given in parentheses, except for the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which was based on crude intake in g/day.
  2. 2 Adjustment for age, sex, residential municipality, number of siblings, smoking in the household, body mass index, paternal and maternal history of allergic diseases, and paternal and maternal educational level.