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Table 4 Recognition of attitudes and behaviors as violence, including dating violence (n = 274)

From: Knowledge, experience, and potential risks of dating violence among Japanese university students: a cross-sectional study

  Sex Faculty Experience of lecture about DV or dating DV
  Male
(n= 126)
Female
(n= 148)
P Non-medical health
(n= 153)
Medical health
(n= 121)
P No
(n= 110)
Yes
(n= 164)
P
  n % n %   n % n %   n % n %  
I think that date DV is a problem only for older people. 123 97.6 147 99.3   150 98.0 120 99.2   108 98.2 162 98.8  
I think that beating or kicking boy/girlfriend is violence. (#) 104 82.5 130 87.8   121 79.1 113 93.4 ** 91 82.7 143 87.2  
I think calling my boy/girlfriend "ugly" or "a fool" is violence. (#) 63 50.0 70 47.3   67 43.8 66 54.5   42 38.2 91 55.5 **
If I control my boy/girlfriend's activities and his/her human relationships, it is violence. (#) 39 31.0 66 44.6 * 48 31.4 57 47.1 ** 31 28.2 74 45.1 **
If my boy/girlfriend does not collaborate in prevention of unwanted pregnancy, it is violence. (#) 70 55.6 121 81.8 *** 90 58.8 101 83.5 *** 60 54.5 131 79.9 ***
I think having a sexual relationship without protection against sexually transmitted infections is violence. (#) 65 51.6 115 77.7 *** 79 51.6 101 83.5 *** 59 53.6 121 73.8 **
I think free taking of money from my boy/girlfriend's wallet or pressing for money is violence. (#) 72 57.1 106 71.6 * 82 53.6 96 79.3 *** 59 53.6 119 72.6 **
I think harassment is a bad behavior. (#) 98 77.8 131 88.5 * 116 75.8 113 93.4 *** 85 77.3 144 87.8 *
I think a recipient of violence also bears some responsibility. (#) 27 21.4 29 19.6   28 18.3 28 23.1   18 16.4 38 23.2  
I think violence occurs due to drinking alcohol and/or becoming irritated. 95 75.4 104 70.3   116 75.8 83 68.6   84 76.4 115 70.1  
I think people subject their boy/girlfriend to harassment/violence because they do not love him/her. 113 89.7 141 95.3   140 91.5 114 94.2   102 92.7 152 92.7  
I think it is possible to avoid unwanted sexual relations if one really does not want to engage in sex. 90 71.4 114 77.0   110 71.9 94 77.7   82 74.5 122 74.4  
Although there may be violence between a couple, it is not recognized as violence if they are a committed couple. 115 91.3 140 94.6   140 91.5 115 95.0   110 91.8 154 96.9  
I will terminate a relationship with my boy/girlfriend if he/she is violent. (#) 19 15.1 62 41.9 *** 31 20.3 50 41.3 *** 31 28.2 50 30.5  
If a couple with violence does not terminate their relationship, the violence is not serious. 115 91.3 141 95.3   140 91.5 116 95.9   101 91.8 155 94.5  
I think it is possible to avoid violence depending on my behavior. 108 85.7 131 88.5   135 88.2 104 86.0   97 88.2 142 86.6  
I think my boy/girlfriend should be forgiven if he/she apologizes after being violent. 110 87.3 137 92.6   134 87.6 113 93.4   110 90.9 147 89.6  
My boy/girlfriend does not like when I talk or go out with others, because he/she loves me. 99 78.6 106 71.6   127 83.0 78 64.5 *** 88 80.0 117 71.3  
If a relationship is on intimate terms, I should comply with requests for sexual relations. 113 89.7 144 97.3 * 139 90.8 118 97.5 * 104 94.5 153 93.3  
The risk of pregnancy is low if I have a sexual relationship without protection, and it is therefore not necessary to use contraception. 122 96.8 145 98.0   148 96.7 119 98.3   106 96.4 161 98.2 *
If my boy/girlfriend loves me, I should comply with their requests for sexual intercourse even if I do not want to engage in sex. 121 96.0 143 96.6   146 95.4 118 97.5   107 97.3 157 95.7  
  1. Numbers and percentages indicate the study participants who responded "no" to each question without (#) and "yes" to each question with (#) regarding recognition of attitude and behavior as harassment, abuse, or violence.
  2. Fisher's exact test was performed. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.001.