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Table 4 Associations of several variables in the final model with mis-estimation of BMI or discordance between self-reported and measured BMI categories.

From: Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

  BMISRUnder-
Estimated
by < -1.40 kg/m2
BMISRCat. <
BMIMCat.
BMISROver-
Estimated
by > 1.40 kg/m2
BMISRCat. >
BMIMCat.
Sex     
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 1.76 (1.29 to 2.40)*** 2.27 (1.54 to 3.33)*** 0.51 (0.26 to 0.99)** 0.46 (0.21 to 1.01)T
Age     
   18 to 29 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   30 to 44 years 1.15 (0.70 to 1.89) 0.69 (0.35 to 1.36) 1.43 (0.54 to 3.74) 2.12 (0.65 to 6.85)
   45 to 64 years 1.48 (0.87 to 2.42) 0.90 (0.45 to 1.78) 1.22 (0.43 to 3.50) 1.69 (0.46 to 6.17)
   65+ years 2.99 (1.65 to 5.41)*** 1.20 (0.56 to 2.55) 1.28 (0.35 to 4.68) 1.80 (0.40 to 8.06)
BMI Category §     
   Underweight - - 1.62 (0.16 to 16.47) 22.45 (2.82 to 179)***
   Normal Range 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Overweight 4.99 (3.42 to 7.29)*** 112 (36.7 to 344)*** 0.45 (0.20 to 1.03)T 0.24 (0.09 to 0.66)***
   Obese 18.0 (10.7 to 30.4)*** 1016 (300 to 3440)*** 0.29 (0.09 to 0.91)** 0.12 (0.03 to 0.47)***
Marital Status     
   Single (never married) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Married/Cohabiting 0.66 (0.45 to 0.97)** 0.60 (0.55 to 1.48) 0.75 (0.35 to 1.60) 0.82 (0.34 to 1.96)
   Divorced/Separated/Widowed 0.64 (0.37 to 1.10)T 0.85 (0.44 to 1.62) 0.91 (0.30 to 2.74) 0.56 (0.14 to 2.25)
Self-described weight §§     
   About the right weight 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Too heavy 0.51 (0.34 to 0.76)*** 0.28 (0.18 to 0.49)*** 2.03 (0.80 to 5.14)T 2.20 (0.77 to 6.26)
   Too light 1.76 (0.77 to 4.01) 19.8 (4.50 to 87.4)*** 0.60 (0.10 to 3.54) 0.40 (0.05 to 3.05)
   Not sure 0.81 (0.34 to 1.92) 0.60 (0.22 to 1.64) 3.77 (1.03 to 13.78)** 3.36 (0.68 to 16.5)
Attempting to manage weight     
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Lose weight 0.74 (0.51 to 1.07)T 0.39 (0.25 to 0.60)*** 1.55 (0.65 to 3.68) 3.50 (1.33 to 9.20)***
   Maintain weight 0.88 (0.58 to 1.31) 0.73 (0.43 to 1.22) 1.02 (0.41 to 2.53) 0.97 (0.29 to 3.30)
   Gain weight 1.79 (0.43 to 7.49) 2.19 (0.32 to 15.2) - 2.52 (0.14 to 45.8)
  1. All values reported are adjusted OR (99% CI).
  2. BMISR, BMI based on self-reported weight and height; BMIM, BMI based on measured weight and height; Cat., category.
  3. § BMI categories defined as: Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), Normal Range (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), Overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and Obese (30.0+ kg/m2).
  4. §§ Self-described weight taking into account one's age and height.
  5. Multivariate logistic regression with the following covariates: sex, age, BMI category, ethnicity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical acitvity level, level of education, marital status, self-described weight, weight management attempt.
  6. T P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001.