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Table 2 BMI z-scores, height and weight at baseline (age of 2) and change during the study (until the age of 5-7) of 2190 children divided in four groups based on BMI status.

From: Quantification of the energy gap in young overweight children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

  BMI status at 2 and 5-7 years of age*  
  Normal/Normal
(n = 1868)
Normal/Overweight
(n = 160)
Overweight/Overweight
(n = 59)
Overweight/Normal
(n = 103)
P value***
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD  
Age of 2:          
BMI z-score -0.25bcd -0.91 0.43acd 0.79 2.00ab 0.50 1.85ab 0.43 <0.0001
Height (cm) 93.6d 5.2 94.0d 5.0 93.5d 6.0 91.2abc 5.0 <0.0001
Weight (kg) 13.9bcd 1.7 14.7acd 1.7 16.6abd 2.2 15.6abc 1.6 <0.0001
Change:          
BMI z-score -0.19bd 0.95 1.12acd 0.92 -0.34bd 0.67 -1.50abc 0.55 <0.0001
Height (cm) 28.8cd 5.8 28.9cd 7.9 30.7ab 7.3 31.5ab 6.0 <0.0001
Weight (kg)** 8.5bc 7.0;10.3 13.4ad 10.5;16.0 13.1ad 10.5;15.2 8.7bc 7.5;10.0 <0.0001
  1. BMI, body mass index. SD, standard deviation
  2. a Significantly different (p < 0.05) from group Normal/Normal.
  3. b Significantly different from group (p < 0.05) Normal/Overweight.
  4. c Significantly different from group (p < 0.05) Overweight/Overweight.
  5. d Significantly different from group (p < 0.05) Overweight/Normal.
  6. *Classification is based on age and sex specific international BMI cut off points for children[10].
  7. ** Skewed distribution, median and 25th and 75th percentile presented.
  8. ***ANOVA for normally distributed variables, Kruskal Wallis for variables with a skewed distribution.