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Table 2 Themes identified in the interviews and used in the Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

From: Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

Themea Typeb Description
Absent Manager I The informant described a situation where the employer/line manager was physically absent or/and unable to give support to the employees.
Agent of Change D The informant described a situation where she had an active role in the implementation of the changes.
Already Ill D Means that the informant mentioned having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991.
Control In D Informants described a feeling of being in control during day-to-day activities at work, e.g. regarding when and how the work tasks should be performed.
Control Over D Informants felt that they had substantial influence over structural issues at the workplace, e.g. the setting of new goals, organisational decisions, hiring of new employees etc.
Cost-Cutting D The informant expressed the view that the organisational changes were mainly driven by financial cuts.
Disintegration D The informant described that subgroups were formed and that former colleagues were split up making cooperation more difficult.
High Workload D The informant experiences a high workload with few pauses.
Humiliating Position I The informant experienced a state of low status or belittlement and a feeling of being an outsider or not being wanted at the workplace.
Insufficient Dialogue D The informant experienced a lack of, or insufficient, dialogue with her line manager and other superiors during the organisational changes.
Investment D The informant felt that the organizational changes were aimed at improvement rather than cost-cutting, and that the management invested in the organization.
Lacking Competence or Qualifications I The informant experienced a lack of competence or formal qualifications in relation to other employees and/or work tasks.
Lacking Exit Possibility I The informant had not seen a realistic possibility to find another job.
Mentor I The informant mentioned a person who gave support and inspiration, and who in different ways encouraged the informant during the changes.
Multiple Roles I The informant worked in several teams in parallel.
Pioneering Spirit I The term Pioneering Spirit (Swedish: nybyggaranda) was mentioned with enthusiasm in several interviews, a phenomenon which was described in terms of being there 'from the beginning' and 'building something new'.
Problem with Colleagues D The informant mentioned conflicts or malfunctioning communication at the workplace.
Stress in Private Life D The informant mentioned having experienced difficulties and/or stress in her social/private life.
Support from Colleagues D The informant experienced good support from her colleagues, both at work and in private life.
Support in Private Life D The informant experienced good support from her family.
Unregulated Work I The informant experienced a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees.
Well Planned Change Process of change I The informant described a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes, e.g. in the form of meetings, clear information, and adequate dialogue.
  1. aThe themes used in the final solutions are indicated in bold.
  2. bThemes coded inductively are labeled (I) and the ones coded deductively are labeled (D).