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Table 1 List of themes

From: The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

Themes that emerged from the regional study

Themes covered in this paper

1. Socio-cultural norms


2. Sensory Characteristics of waterpipe

3. Pros and cons of waterpipe preparation


4. Metaphors


5. Consumerism (Availability, Affordability, Frequency, Cost, Innovation)

6. Indicators of dependence of waterpipe smoking


7. Comparison between cigarettes and waterpipe


8. Health effect of smoking


9. Motivation to smoke (Coping, Entertainment, State of mind, Boredom)


10. Intervention (Media, Awareness, Policy, Regulations, Government role)

11. Tradition