Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected characteristics of participants

From: Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study

  8-10-year-olds   14-16-year-olds  
  Girls (n = 382) Boys (n = 315) P Girls (n = 275) Boys (n = 220) P
Continuous variables 1           
Age (years) 9.7 (0.4) 9.8 (0.4) <0.0001 15.6 (0.4) 15.7 (0.4) 0.07
Height (cm) 139.2 (6.4) 140.3 (6.5) 0.03 165.5 (6.6) 176.4 (7.3) <0.0001
Bodyweight (kg) 33.4 (6.2) 34.1 (6.3) 0.19 57.9 (9.6) 65.5 (10.5) <0.0001
BMI z-score2 0.3 (1.1) 0.3 (1.2) 0.83 0.4 (1.0) 0.5 (1.0) 0.04
Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 23.5 (3.9) 24 (4.2) 0.09 23.8 (4.5) 24.6 (5.4) 0.05
Paternal BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 (3.3) 25.4 (2.9) 0.83 25.7 (3.5) 25.6 (3.3) 0.77
Energy intake (MJ)3 8.4 (2.2) 9.4 (2.7) <0.0001 8.5 (2.9) 12.0 (4.3) <0.0001
Fat E%3 31.2 (7.2) 31.5 (6.9) 0.73 28.4 (8.1) 30.5 (7.6) 0.006
Sugar E%3 9.5 (6.6) 9.7 (6.9) 0.65 9.5 (8.0) 10.7 (7.1) 0.11
Liquid sugar (E%)3 3.5 (4.8) 3.7 (4.7) 0.53 3.9 (5.9) 5.6 (6.1) 0.002
Liquid sugar (g/day)3 16.5 (21.5) 20.8 (26.3) <0.0001 20.3 (35.9) 40.4 (46.3) <0.0001
Σ healthy food preferences 7.2 (2.5) 6.4 (2.4) <0.0001 7.6 (2.4) 6.1 (2.3) <0.0001
Σ healthy food habits 19.9 (3.1) 19.1 (3.3) 0.003 20.6 (2.9) 18.3 (3.3) <0.0001
TV viewing (h/day) 1.2 (0.9) 1.4 (1.1) 0.0005 1.5 (1.1) 1.8 (1.2) 0.01
Physical activity (mean counts/min) 592.1 (189.3) 710.3 (217.8) <0.0001 410.6 (143.9) 477.4 (171.3) <0.0001
Categorical variables 4           
SES           
   Low 186 (48.7) 153 (48.6)   131 (47.6) 115 (52.3)  
   High 196 (51.3) 162 (51.4) 0.97 144 (52.4) 105 (47.7) 0.31
TV viewing           
   <1 h/day 162 (42.4) 115 (36.5)   85 (30.9) 58 (26.4)  
   1-2 h/day 180 (47.1) 145 (46.0)   123 (44.7) 93 (42.3)  
   >2 h/day 40 (10.5) 55 (17.5) 0.02 67 (24.4) 69 (31.4) 0.20
TV meals           
   Almost never or never 92 (24.1) 81 (25.7)   54 (19.6) 50 (22.7)  
   1-2 times a week 171 (44.8) 98 (31.1)   111 (40.4) 64 (29.1)  
   Every day or most days 119 (31.2) 136 (43.2) 0.0005 110 (40.0) 106 (48.2) 0.03
  1. 1 P for difference between boys and girls of same age, tests for difference in multiple regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for survey year. Values are mean (SD).
  2. 2Based on a Danish reference population [26].
  3. 3Due to some missing values on the dietary variables these values are based on 356 8-10-year-old girls, 278 8-10-year-old boys, 265 14-16-year-old girls, and 208 14-16-year-old boys.
  4. 4 P for difference between boys and girls of same age, Chi-square test for difference between groups. Values are n (%).
  5. SD, standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; MJ, Mega Joule; E%, percentage of energy; SES, socioeconomic status.