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Table 3 Regression coefficients and associated standard errors (S.E.) for a selection of socio-demographic factors individually added to the mixed-effects models relating time in New Zealand to standardised NZAccult and PIAccult scores presented in Table 2

From: Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

  Standardised NZAc cult score Standardised PIAcc ult score
  Immigrated to New Zealand Lived entirely within New Zealand Immigrated to New Zealand Lived entirely within New Zealand
  Est. (S.E.) P-value Est. (S.E.) P-value Est. (S.E.) P-value Est. (S.E.) P-value
Ethnicity    <0.001    0.12    <0.001    <0.001
   Samoan (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
   Tongan -0.033 (0.010)   -0.005 (0.021)   -0.050 (0.007)   -0.038 (0.027)  
   Cook Island Maori 0.039 (0.013)   -0.027 (0.012)   -0.132 (0.010)   -0.129 (0.016)  
   Other Pacific 0.076 (0.019)   0.004 (0.016)   -0.107 (0.014)   -0.129 (0.022)  
Marital status    0.69    0.46    0.19    0.07
   Married/de facto (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
   Single -0.004 (0.010)   -0.008 (0.011)   -0.011 (0.008)   -0.022 (0.012)  
Highest educational qualifications   <0.001    0.001    0.004    0.31
   No formal qual. -0.123 (0.009)   -0.045 (0.012)   0.026 (0.008)   -0.024 (0.016)  
   Secondary -0.059 (0.010)   -0.009 (0.011)   0.012 (0.008)   -0.006 (0.014)  
   Post-secondary (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
Smoking status    0.07    0.74    0.008    0.06
   Non-smoker (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
   Smoker 0.018 (0.010)   -0.003 (0.010)   -0.021 (0.008)   -0.022 (0.012)  
Employment status    <0.001    <0.001    0.28    0.80
   Full-time employed 0.078 (0.009)   0.053 (0.011)   0.009 (0.007)   0.006 (0.011)  
   Part-time employed 0.054 (0.013)   0.044 (0.016)   -0.009 (0.011)   -0.005 (0.016)  
   Not employed (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
Number of usual household residents   <0.001    0.21    0.003    0.02
   2-4 (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
   5-7 -0.018 (0.010)   -0.015 (0.011)   0.027 (0.008)   0.031 (0.012)  
   ≥8 -0.047 (0.011)   -0.022 (0.013)   0.023 (0.009)   0.033 (0.014)  
Household income (NZD) at baseline   0.02    0.63    0.009    0.25
   ≤$20 000 -0.049 (0.015)   0.011 (0.018)   0.009 (0.012)   -0.009 (0.026)  
   $20 001-$40 000 -0.034 (0.014)   0.016 (0.017)   0.021 (0.011)   0.000 (0.025)  
   >$40 000 (reference)   (reference)   (reference)   (reference)  
   Unknown -0.026 (0.028)   0.037 (0.030)   -0.037 (0.022)   -0.079 (0.044)