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Table 2 Multinomial logistic regression analysis of minor/major and major PPDS

From: Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

  PPDS (minor/major) PPDS (major)
  OR 95% CI† OR 95% CI†
Socioeconomic Factors
Maternal education level
Less than High School 1.16 0.71-1.90 1.40 0.85-2.32
High School Graduate 1.20 0.84-1.72 1.24 0.82-1.87
Some Post-Secondary 1.54 0.99-2.38 0.98 0.59-1.61
Post-Secondary Diploma 1.14 0.88-1.48 0.98 0.73-1.32
University Graduate 1   1  
Total household income
Low 1.16 0.56-2.39 1.91 0.95-3.83
Low-Middle 2.11 1.39-3.20 1.79 1.14-2.82
Middle 1.60 1.16-2.21 1.47 1.02-2.12
Middle-Upper 1.39 1.05-1.85 1.38 1.00-1.91
High 1   1  
Occupation during pregnancy
No 1.09 0.86-1.38 1.32 1.01-1.71
Yes 1   1  
Demographic Factors
Region of residence
Atlantic 1.39 0.64-3.03 1.05 0.40-2.75
Quebec 1.33 0.62-2.87 1.28 0.51-3.21
Ontario 1.37 0.62-3.01 0.98 0.39-2.46
Prairies 1.08 0.49-2.34 0.96 0.38-2.40
British Columbia 1.25 0.56-2.80 0.86 0.33-2.27
Territories 1   1  
Immigration status
Yes 1.84 1.41-2.40 2.35 1.77-3.13
No 1   1  
Age of infant (months)
9-14 0.39 0.19-0.81 0.52 0.22-1.26
6-8 1.10 0.80-1.51 0.78 0.54-1.12
5 1   1  
Maternal Characteristics
Parity
Multiparous 0.91 0.72-1.14 1.06 0.83-1.37
Primiparous 1   1  
Living with a husband/partner
No 1.01 0.67-1.53 1.09 0.72-1.65
Yes 1   1  
Maternal age
15-19 1.17 0.58-2.35 2.03 1.09-3.78
20-24 0.86 0.61-1.22 1.09 0.75-1.58
25-34 1   1  
35-39 1.13 0.85-1.50 1.10 0.79-1.51
40+ 0.83 0.45-1.54 0.94 0.51-1.73
Pregnancy weight gain guidelines
Inadequate 1.05 0.76-1.45 1.11 0.79-1.57
Recommended 1   1  
Excessive 1.22 0.93-1.62 1.17 0.85-1.61
Previous diagnosis of depression/prescription antidepressants
Yes 1.70 1.32-2.19 2.50 1.91-3.28
No 1   1  
Smoking status during 3rd trimester
Smoked 0.78 0.66-0.91 0.90 0.76-1.07
Did not smoke 1   1  
Mother's stress level during pregnancy
Very stressed 3.59 2.58-5.00 6.98 4.99-9.77
Somewhat stressed 2.39 1.86-3.09 2.28 1.71-3.05
Not at all 1   1  
Breastfeeding initiation
No 0.99 0.71-1.38 0.70 0.46-1.07
Yes 1   1  
Other variables
Availability of support after pregnancy
None of the time 2.26 0.89-5.71 3.75 1.69-8.35
Some of the time 2.93 2.29-3.77 4.12 3.19-5.31
Most of the time 1   1  
Planned pregnancy
No 0.89 0.59-1.34 0.99 0.66-1.49
Yes 1   1  
Baby in NICU
Yes 1.14 0.84-1.55 0.99 0.72-1.38
No 1   1  
  1. † 95% CI were calculated using bootstrapping technique
  2. ORs in bold are significant at an alpha of 0.05
  3. The multinomial regression model included all independent variables listed in the table.