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Table 3 Growth curve models predicting depressive symptomatology on the lack of positive affect domain, the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) 1989-2007

From: Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

  Model 1 Model 2
Covariates Coefficient (β) Standard Error Coefficient (β) Standard Error
Social participation     
Participation before 70 (ref = never participated)     
   Continuous participation from baseline to age 70, β01 -0.736*** 0.107 -0.600*** 0.108
   Initiating participation from baseline to age 70, β02 -0.472*** 0.104 -0.398*** 0.102
   Ceased participation after baseline, β03 -0.203*** 0.115 -0.114*** 0.115
   Dropped out before age 70, β04 -0.092*** 0.124 -0.073*** 0.123
Health status     
Physical disability (ref = None)     
   1+ functioning limitations    0.321*** 0.080
Chronic health problems (ref = None)     
   1+ chronic conditions    -0.128*** 0.099
Socio-demographics     
Gender (ref = Male)     
   Female    -0.250*** 0.098
Ethnicity (ref = Fukianese)     
   Hakka    -0.053*** 0.106
   Mainlander    +0.012*** 0.097
Socioeconomic position     
Education (ref = Illiterate)     
   Incomplete primary education    -0.351*** 0.120
   Completed primary education    -0.502*** 0.099
   High school graduate and above    -0.697*** 0.116
Work status (ref = No work)     
   Full- or part-time work    -0.117*** 0.189
   Assisting family    -0.009*** 0.156
Home ownership (ref = no)    -0.132*** 0.083
Family background     
Family living arrangement (ref = Alone)     
   Living with family    -0.185*** 0.088
Symptom level, intercept 3.814*** 0.103 4.443*** 0.171
Mean growth rate, linear -0.172*** 0.018 -0.173*** 0.018
Mean acceleration, quadratic 0.005*** 0.001 0.005*** 0.001
Random effects Estimate S.E. Estimate S.E.
   Variance in random intercept 0.952*** 0.196 0.874** 0.192
   Variance in random slope 0.002*** 0.001 0.002** 0.001
   Variance in residuals 4.557*** 0.106 4.546*** 0.106
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001