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Table 2 Growth curve models predicting depressive symptomatology on the negative affect domain, the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) 1989-2007

From: Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

  Model 1 Model 2
Covariates Coefficient (β) Standard Error Coefficient (β) Standard Error
Social participation     
Participation before 70 (ref = never participated)     
   Continuous participation from baseline to age 70, β01 -1.414*** 0.262 -0.681** 0.250
   Initiating participation from baseline to age 70, β02 -1.128*** 0.256 -0.709** 0.235
   Ceased participation after baseline, β03 -0.710*** 0.283 -0.195** 0.265
   Dropped out before age 70, β04 0.003** 0.277 0.111** 0.262
Health status     
Physical disability (ref = None)     
   One and more functioning limitations    1.789*** 0.180
Chronic health problems (ref = None)     
   One and more chronic conditions    -0.297*** 0.221
Socio-demographics     
Gender (ref = Male)     
   Female    0.294*** 0.221
Ethnicity (ref = Fukianese)     
   Hakka    0.017*** 0.240
   Mainlander    -0.122*** 0.218
Socioeconomic position     
Education (ref = Illiterate)     
   Incomplete primary education    -0.434*** 0.272
   Completed primary education    -0.941*** 0.226
   High school graduate and above    -1.437*** 0.265
Work status (ref = No work)     
   Full- or part-time work    -0.690*** 0.201
   Assisting family    -0.754*** 0.238
Home ownership (ref = no)    -0.465*** 0.188
Family background     
Family living arrangement (ref = Alone)     
   Living with family    -0.534*** 0.200
Symptom level, intercept 3.142*** 0.209 4.146*** 0.367
Mean growth rate, linear 0.182** 0.031 0.175*** 0.030
Mean acceleration, quadratic -0.004*** 0.001 -0.004** 0.001
Random effects Estimate S.E. Estimate S.E.
   Variance in random intercept 4.285*** 0.735 2.392*** 0.599
   Variance in random slope 0.018*** 0.006 0.017*** 0.005
   Variance in residuals 13.297*** 0.342 13.335*** 0.318
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001