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Table 1 Sample characteristics [mean (SD) or percent] by categories of social participation at the 1989 baseline interviews in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA)

From: Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: An 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan

  Continuous participation from baseline to age 70 Initiating participation from baseline to age 70 Ceased participation after baseline Never participated
before age 70
Dropped out
before age 70
Total
  (n = 259) (n = 274) (n = 200) (n = 359) (n = 296) (n = 1,388)
Health status       
Physical disability: One and more functioning limitations (%) 28.57b 33.94 33.50 40.67a 42.91ab** 36.53
Chronic disease: One and more chronic conditions (%) 15.83 13.50a 17.00 14.76 22.64a* 16.71
Socio-demographic characteristics       
Male (%) 80.31aef 57.66ceg 76.50b 43.73abcd 68.58dfg*** 63.33
Ethnicity (%)       
   Fukianese 51.35a 62.77c 47.50bc 65.74ab 58.11*** 58.21
   Hakka 15.06 16.06 14.00 15.32 10.14 14.12
   Mainlander 33.59ad 21.17def 38.50be 18.94abc 31.76cf*** 27.67
Socioeconomic position       
Education (%)       
   Illiterate 17.76ad 31.02d 19.50b 38.44abc 25.68c*** 27.67
   Incomplete primary education 10.04 15.69 15.00 18.11 17.91 15.63
   Completed primary education 36.68 33.58 34.00 27.02 28.72 31.48
   High school graduate and above 35.52ae 19.71cef 31.50bf 16.43abcd 27.70d*** 25.22
Work status (%)       
   No work 27.03b 17.15ac 33.50 30.92a 40.54bc 29.90
   Full- or part-time work 53.28ac 51.09bd 47.00 37.05ab 38.51cd*** 44.60
   Assisting family 19.69ad 31.75def 19.50be 32.03abc 20.95cf*** 25.50
Home owned (%) 74.52b 78.10d 74.00c 72.70a 60.14abcd*** 71.61
Family background       
Lives with family (%) 80.69a 81.75b 74.00 73.26 64.19ab*** 74.50
CES-D score       
Negative affect domain 2.02ad
(2.94)
2.16ce
(3.22)
2.54b
(3.84)
3.55abc
(4.54)
3.52de***
(4.55)
2.84
(3.99)
Lack of positive affect domain 2.63acd
(2.35)
3.14b
(2.26)
3.51c
(2.32)
3.67ab
(2.14)
3.53d***
(2.18)
3.32
(2.27)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. a, b, c, d, e, f, g Bonferroni post hoc tests: values with identical superscripts differ at the 0.05 level.