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Table 2 Higher public healthcare expenditures prevalence in a sample of type 2 diabetic subjects with different socio-demographic and health characteristics, according to expenditure categories (Brazil, 2009).

From: The burden of physical activity on type 2 diabetes public healthcare expenditures among adults: a retrospective study

Independent variables Expenditure category: higher tertile (n [%])
   i ii iii iv v vi vii
   Laboratory tests Medication T2DM medication Other medication Medical consultation Nursing consultation Overall expenditure
Age <50 years-old 11 (37.9) 12 (41.2) 12 (41.4) 5 (17.2) 13 (44.8) 9 (31) 12 (41.4)
  ≥50 years-old 29 (31.5) 28 (30.4) 28 (30.4) 37 (40.2)* 27 (29.3) 40 (43.5) 28 (30.4)
Smoking habit No 35 (32.7) 36 (33.6) 36 (33.6) 40 (37.4) 34 (31.8) 42 (39,3) 36 (33.6)
  Yes 5 (35.7) 4 (28.6) 4 (28.4) 2 (14.3) 6 (42.9) 7 (50) 4 (28.6)
Exogenous insulin use No 24 (31.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 27 (35.1) 18 (23.4) 20 (26) 0 (0)
  Yes 16 (36.4) 40 (90.9)** 40 (90.9)** 15 (34.1) 22 (50)** 29 (65.9)** 40 (90.9)**
BMI <29.9 kg/m2 19 (29.2) 24 (36.9) 24 (36.9) 22 (33.8) 21 (32.3) 30 (46.2) 24 (36.9)
  ≥30 kg/m2 21 (37.5) 16 (28.6) 16 (28.6) 20 (35.7) 19 (33.9) 19 (33.9) 16 (28.6)
WHR Normal 5 (31.3) 5 (31.3) 5 (31.3) 2 (12.5) 6 (37.5) 5 (31.3) 5 (31.3)
  High 35 (33.3) 35 (33.3) 35 (33.3) 40 (38.1)* 34 (32.4) 44 (41.9) 35 (33.3)
Diabetic Neuropathy No 30 (33.7) 29 (32.6) 29 (32.6) 33 (37.1) 32 (36) 37 (41.6) 29 (32.6)
  Yes 10 (31.3) 11 (34.4) 11 (34.4) 9 (28.1) 8 (25) 12 (37.5) 11 (34.4)
  Sedentary 13 (41.9) 12 (38.7) 12 (38.7) 16 (51.6) 14 (45.2) 13 (41.9) 12 (38.7)
Physical activity M. Active 20 (34.5) 18 (31) 18 (31) 20 (34.5) 20 (34.5) 24 (41.4) 18 (31)
  Active 7 (21.9) 10 (31.3) 10 (31.3) 6 (18.8)§ 6 (18.8)§ 12 (37.5) 10 (31.3)
  1. § = p < 0.05 compared to Sedentary; * = chi-square test with p < 0.05; ** = chi-square test with p < 0.01; M. Active = moderately active; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI = body mass index; WHR = waist-to-hip ratio.