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Table 1 Socio-demographic, anthropometric and health characteristics in a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, according to gender (Brazil, 2009).

From: The burden of physical activity on type 2 diabetes public healthcare expenditures among adults: a retrospective study

Variables Overall (n = 121) Male (n = 49) Female (n = 72) P
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Age in years 60.1 ± 8.9 59.8 ± 9.9 60.2 ± 8.3 0.802
BMI (kg/m2) 30.6 ± 6.5 28.2 ± 4.9 32.3 ± 7.1 0.001
Physical activity score 6.5 ± 1.8 6.6 ± 1.8 6.4 ± 1.8 0.663
Medical consultations per year 1.83 ± 1.4 1.86 ± 1.5 1.82 ± 1.3 0.884
Laboratory tests (US$) 14.5 ± 1.3 14.2 ± 2.1 14.7 ± 1.7 0.872
Medication (US$) 89.1 ± 10.8 98.8 ± 17.4 82.1 ± 13.8 0.461
T2DM medication (US$) 81.9 ± 10.9 93.7 ± 17.4 73.9 ± 13.9 0.376
Other medication (US$) 7.1 ± 0.6 5.1 ± 0.7 8.5 ± 0.9 0.006
Medical consultation (US$) 7.8 ± 0.4 8.1 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 0.5 0.859
Nursing consultation (US$) 37.4 ± 1.2 39.5 ± 1.3 35.9 ± 1.9 0.128
Overall expenditures (US$) 148.9 ± 11.7 160.5 ± 17.7 140.5 ± 14.1 0.481
Skin color (%)     0.361
   White 71.9 73.5 70.8  
   Black 18.2 10.2 23.6  
   Yellow 6.6 10.2 4.2  
   Other 3.3 6.1 1.4  
Fasting glucose (%)     0.238
   <99 mg/dl 9.1 10.2 8.3  
   100-125 mg/dl 22.3 28.6 18.1  
   ≥126 mg/dl 68.6 61.2 73.6  
WHR (%)     0.003
   Normal 13.2 24.5 5.5  
   High 86.8 75.5 94.4  
BMI (%)     0.008
   <25 kg/m2 18.2 24.5 13.9  
   25-29.9 kg/m2 35.5 44.9 29.2  
   ≥30 kg/m2 46.3 30.6 56.9  
Smoking habit (%) 11.6 16.3 8.3 0.289
Exogenous insulin use (%) 36.4 42.9 31.9 0.302
Diabetic neuropathy (%) 26.4 32.7 22.2 0.286
Physically active (%) 26.4% 24.5 27.8 0.586
  1. SD = standard-deviation; BMI = body mass index; WHR = waist-to-hip ratio; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus