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Table 3 Proportion of population, proportion who smoke, and odds ratios for current smoking, by demographic and psychosocial characteristics, US National Health Interview Survey (n = 31,428)

From: Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

  Frequency Proportion who smoke Multivariate odds ratio for current smoking
  % 95% CI % 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age group (years)       
   18 - 24 13.0 (12.5 - 13.5) 24.4 (22.4 - 26.3) 1.00 (Reference)
   25 - 34 17.9 (17.4 - 18.4) 24.6 (23.2 - 25.9) 1.32 (1.18 - 1.47)
   35 - 44 19.7 (19.2 - 20.3) 23.6 (22.4 - 24.8) 1.30 (1.16 - 1.46)
   45 - 54 19.3 (18.8 - 19.9) 24.4 (23.1 - 25.7) 1.29 (1.15 - 1.46)
   55 - 64 13.9 (13.4 - 14.3) 18.5 (17.2 - 19.8) 0.86 (0.76 - 0.98)
   65 and over 16.1 (15.7 - 16.5) 8.6 (7.8 - 9.4) 0.27 (0.24 - 0.31)
Sex       
   Male 48.2 (47.5 - 48.8) 23.9 (23.0 - 24.7) 1.63 (1.54 - 1.73)
   Female 51.8 (51.2 - 52.5) 18.1 (17.5 - 18.8) 1.00 (Reference)
Race/ethnicity       
   Non-Hispanic White 71.3 (70.8 - 71.9) 22.0 (21.3 - 22.6) 1.00 (Reference)
   Hispanic 12.8 (12.4 - 13.1) 16.2 (15.0 - 17.4) 0.54 (0.49 - 0.60)
   Non-Hispanic Black 11.3 (10.9 - 11.7) 21.3 (19.8 - 22.8) 0.64 (0.59 - 0.70)
   All other race groups 4.6 (4.3 - 4.9) 16.4 (13.9 - 18.9) 0.89 (0.74 - 1.06)
Marital status       
   Married/living with partner 61.8 (61.2 - 62.5) 18.9 (18.3 - 19.6) 1.00 (Reference)
   Divorced/widowed/separated 17.0 (16.6 - 17.4) 24.0 (22.9 - 25.1) 1.41 (1.30 - 1.52)
   Never married 19.7 (19.2 - 20.3) 24.3 (22.9 - 25.8) 1.02 (0.94 - 1.11)
   Not stated 1.4 (1.3 - 1.6) 22.4 (18.5 - 26.4) 1.20 (0.97 - 1.48)
Education       
   Less than high school 16.1 (15.6 - 16.6) 26.5 (24.9 - 28.0) 3.39 (3.03 - 3.78)
   High school graduate or GED 29.4 (28.8 - 30.0) 26.8 (25.7 - 27.9) 2.99 (2.73 - 3.29)
   Some college/associate degree 28.0 (27.4 - 28.5) 22.0 (21.0 - 23.0) 2.21 (2.01 - 2.43)
   College graduate or higher 25.5 (24.9 - 26.0) 9.6 (8.8 - 10.3) 1.00 (Reference)
   Not stated 1.1 (1.0 - 1.3) 19.3 (13.9 - 24.6) 2.69 (1.92 - 3.77)
Born in the United States       
   Yes 84.2 (83.8 - 84.7) 22.2 (21.6 - 22.8) 1.00 (Reference)
   No 15.7 (15.2 - 16.1) 14.1 (12.9 - 15.2) 0.52 (0.47 - 0.58)
   Not stated 0.1 (0 - 0.1) 28.0 (7.6 - 48.3) 1.55 (0.58 - 4.19)
Family income       
   Under $20,000 17.3 (16.8 - 17.7) 26.9 (25.7 - 28.0) 1.55 (1.38 - 1.75)
   $20,000 or more not further stated 13.4 (13.0 - 13.9) 16.3 (14.8 - 17.7) 1.14 (1.01 - 1.30)
   $20,000 - $44,999 22.1 (21.5 - 22.6) 25.2 (24.0 - 26.4) 1.52 (1.36 - 1.68)
   $45,000 - $74,999 18.1 (17.6 - 18.6) 21.4 (20.0 - 22.7) 1.30 (1.17 - 1.45)
   $75,000 or more 23.1 (22.5 - 23.6) 14.8 (13.7 - 15.9) 1.00 (Reference)
   Not stated 6.1 (5.8 - 6.4) 20.6 (17.9 - 23.2) 1.34 (1.15 - 1.56)
Housing tenure       
   Owned or being bought 70.9 (70.3 - 71.5) 17.9 (17.3 - 18.5) 1.00 (Reference)
   Rented 26.4 (25.9 - 27.0) 28.6 (27.6 - 29.7) 1.52 (1.41 - 1.63)
   Other 2.1 (1.9 - 2.3) 26.6 (22.9 - 30.2) 1.18 (0.99 - 1.41)
   Not stated 0.6 (0.5 - 0.7) 16.6 (10.4 - 22.8) 0.73 (0.47 - 1.15)
K6 level of psychological distress       
   0 - 2 69.3 (68.7 - 69.9) 17.7 (17.1 - 18.3) 1.00 (Reference)
   3 - 7 19.8 (19.2 - 20.3) 25.2 (23.9 - 26.5) 1.41 (1.31 - 1.52)
   8 - 12 6.2 (5.9 - 6.5) 33.9 (31.4 - 36.3) 1.89 (1.70 - 2.10)
   13 - 24 2.9 (2.7 - 3.1) 41.9 (38.4 - 45.4) 2.41 (2.10 - 2.76)
   Not stated 1.8 (1.6 - 2) 16.4 (12.5 - 20.4) 0.91 (0.70 - 1.18)