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Table 3 Three models estimating the relationship between health equity (U5MR quintile ratio), governance (RLTC and SEO) and 9 covariates representing healthcare, finance/economy, education, and physical infrastructure1.

From: Health systems performance in sub-Saharan Africa: governance, outcome and equity

  U5MR Quintile Ratio
  Model 4 (28 < n <30) Model 5 (n = 25) Model 6 (n = 25)
  β/r p β p β p
Healthcare       
Births Attended % .32 .09 .31 .30 .32 .34
Immunisation % .24 .19 .15 .55 .10 .72
Hospital Beds/10,000 .07 .73 -.73 .04 -.73 .06
Finance       
GNI (transformed) $ .35 .06 -.04 .92 -.14 .77
Health Expenditure $ .53 <.001 .88 .01 .85 .02
Education       
Enrolments (female) % .25 .20 -.18 .44 -.24 .40
Adult Literacy % .23 .24 .42 .18 .36 .35
Physical Infrastructure       
Water % .15 .43 -.42 .21 -.47 .25
Sanitation % .33 .08 .27 .23 .27 .25
Governance       
RLTC .32 .09    .10 .77
SEO .42 .02    .19 .71
Adjusted R-squared    .30 .21
  1. 1Model 4 examines the bivariate relationship. Model 5 examines the multivariate relationship between the covariates and health outcome in the absence of the measures of governance. Model 6 examines the multivariate relationship between health outcome and governance, adjusting for the covariates.