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Table 3 Impact of legislation on non-compliance reported by included studies on mobile phone usage in vehicles

From: Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: a realist synthesis

   Data for non-compliance  
Study Location Pre legislation % (sampling interval before legislation) Post legislation % - Time 1 (sampling interval after legislation) Post legislation % - Time 2 (sampling interval after legislation) Method used to obtain data
Johal et al[59]. and Hussain et al[60]. UK, Birmingham 1.85 (10 weeks) 0.97 (10 weeks) 1.63 (24 months) Direct observation of usage
Walker et al[61]. UK, London 2.3 (4 weeks) 2.6 (4 weeks) - Direct observation of usage
Broughton[62] UK, London - - 2.6 (36 months) Direct observation of usage
Constant et al[63]. France, nationwide 4.2 (24 months) 2.2 (24 months) - Self report of usage
Foss et al[64]. US, North Carolina 11.0 (4 to 8 weeks) 11.8 (20 weeks) - Direct observation of usage
Mccartt et al. [42, 65] US, New York City 2.3 (24 weeks) 1.1 (16 weeks) 2.1 (12 months) Direct observation of usage
Mccartt et al[38, 44]. US, Washington DC 6.1 (12 weeks) 3.5 (12 weeks) 4.0 (12 months) Direct observation of usage
Rajalin et al[66]. Finland, nationwide 55.8 (no data) 15.2 (no data) 20.0 (no data) Self report of usage
  1. Key: * data on under 18 year olds only