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Table 4 Relationship between exposure of smoking and effect size

From: Causal assessment of smoking and tooth loss: A systematic review of observational studies

Author, year Unit of exposure Smoking status Sex Exposure
Effect size
P for trend
Ojima, 2007 Pack-years Current M 1-9
1.34*
10-19
2.75
20-
5.17
    <0.0001
   Current F 1-9
1.31*
10-
5.34
     0.0004
Hanioka, 2007 Pack-years Current M 1-19
1.99
20-59
2.20
60-
2.94
    <0.0001
   Current F 1-19
1.74
20-59
2.30
60-
14.5
    <0.0001
Mundt, 2007 Daily consumption Current M, F 1-9
2.1
10-19
2.3
20-
3.5
    NA
   Former M, F 1-9
1.3*
10-19
1.7
20-
2.4
    NA
Dietrich, 2007 Daily consumption Current M 1-4
1.4
5-14
1.9
15-24
2.3
25-34
2.7
35-44
2.9
45-
3.0
NA
  1. Trend of the relationship between the level of exposure and effect size was obvious in all studies.
  2. *Not significant