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Table 3 Effect size of association, differences in prevalence and description of strength of association

From: Causal assessment of smoking and tooth loss: A systematic review of observational studies

    Association Prevalence of tooth loss (%)  
Type of exposure First author, year Sex Effect size
(95% CI)
Type Current smoker Non-smoker Difference Strength of association
Current smokers Randolph, 2001 M
F
1.69 (1.31, 2.20) OR 50
57
41
46
9
11
Moderate
Moderate
  Klein, 2004 M, F 4.04 (2.52, 6.49) OR 92.3 79.5 12.8 Moderate
  Musacchio, 2007 M, F 4.01 (2.59, 6.20) OR 48.1** 42.3** 5.8** Weak
  Ojima, 2007 M
F
2.21 (1.40, 3.50)
1.70 (1.13, 2.55)
OR 39.3
43.2
21.8
29.4
17.5
13.8
Moderate
Moderate
  Hanioka, 2007 M
F
2.24 (1.28, 3.94)
2.74 (1.46, 5.16)
OR 36.9
38.9
28.5
38.6
8.4
0.3
Moderate
Weak
  Mundt, 2007 M, F 2.3 (1.6, 3.4)* OR 21.1** 8.4** 12.7** Moderate
  Krall, 2006 M 2.1 (1.5, 3.1) HR     Weak
  Dietrich, 2007 M 2.3 (2.1, 2.5)* HR     Moderate
Former smokers Randolph, 2001 M
F
1.26 (1.04, 1.54) OR 45
55
41
46
4
9
Weak***
Moderate
  Klein, 2004 M, F 1.57 (1.25, 1.98) OR 85.8 79.5 6.3 Weak***
  Musacchio, 2007 M, F 3.42 (2.42, 4.82) OR 45.5** 42.3** 3.2** Weak
  Ojima, 2007 M
F
1.25 (0.55, 2.86)
0.52 (0.23, 1.18)
OR 26.3
20.0
21.8
29.4
4.5
-9.4
NS***
  Hanioka, 2007 M
F
1.55 (0.88, 2.74)
1.17 (0.44, 3.09)
OR 38.6
34.3
28.5
38.6
10.1
-4.3
NS***
  Mundt, 2007 M, F 1.7 (1.0, 3.1)* OR 12.1** 8.4** 3.7** NS***
  Krall, 2006 M 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) HR     NS***
  Dietrich, 2007 M 1.2 (1.2, 1.3)* HR     Weak***
  1. The evidence of weak to moderate association between smoking and tooth loss was consistent in high-quality studies, and the effect size was consistently smaller for former smokers than for current smokers.
  2. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; HR, hazard ratio; *extracted from the category that included the median value of the group as a representative because the effect size for all current or all former smokers was not reported; **calculated by reviewer based on date in the table in the original literature; ***lower rank than current smokers