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Table 4 Multivariate Prediction of differences between self-reported and measured weight and body mass index (BMI).

From: Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2

  Weigh difference* (kg)    BMI difference* (kg/m2)  
Variables Regression coefficient (ß)
(95% CI)
p value   Regression coefficient (ß)
(95% CI)
p value
Age      
   <45 years 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   45-<55 years -0.82 (-1.85 to +0.21) 0.12   -0.33 (-0.77 to +0.11) 0.15
   55-<65 years +1.35 (+0.30 to +2.40) 0.01   +0.22 (-0.23 to +0.67) 0.33
   65- <75 years +1.89 (+0.75 to +3.02) 0.001   +0.25 (-0.23 to +0.74) 0.31
   ≥75 years +2.29 (+0.99 to +3.58) 0.001   -0.11 (-0.66 to +0.44) 0.71
Sex (Female vs Male) -0.14 (-0.89 to +0.60) 0.70   +0.08 (-0.24 to +0.39) 0.64
Obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) (measured) -2.73 (-3.47 to -1.98) <0.001   -1.55 (-1.86 to -1.23) <0.001
Ever smokers -0.71 (-1.59 to +0.17) 0.12   -0.18 (-0.55 to +0.20) 0.36
Married -0.44 (-1.32 to +0.44) 0.33   -0.12 (-0.50 to +0.26) 0.54
Time lag between measurements      
   Quartile 1 (<1.29 years) 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   Quartile 2 (≥1.29 - <1.58 years) -0.07 (-1.00 to +0.86) 0.88   +0.01 (-0.38 to +0.41) 0.95
   Quartile 3 (≥1.58 - <2.33 years) -0.26 (-1.19 to +0.67) 0.59   -0.12 (-0.52 to +0.28) 0.56
   Quartile 4 (≥2.33 years) +0.59 (-0.37 to +1.55) 0.23   +0.25 (-0.16 to +0.66) 0.23
Education      
   ≤High School 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   ≤2-year college -1.27 (-2.16 to -0.38) 0.05   -0.39 (-0.77 to -0.01) 0.04
   ≤Doctoral degree -0.63 (-1.59 to +0.32) 0.19   -0.13 (-0.54 to +0.28) 0.53
Income per capita1      
   Low 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   Medium -0.29 (-1.26 to +0.69) 0.53   -0.24 (-0.66 to +0.18) 0.26
   High -0.56 (-1.68 to +0.57) 0.33   -0.26 (-0.75 to +0.22) 0.28
Race      
   White 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   Black +0.01 (-0.74 to +0.75) 0.99   -0.10 (-0.42 to +0.22) 0.56
   Hispanic -0.11 (-1.89 to +1.67) 0.90   -0.16 (-0.92 to +0.60) 0.68
   Asian +0.80 (-1.63 to +3.23) 0.52   +0.30 (-0.74 to +1.34) 0.29
   Other -1.27 (-4.77 to +2.23) 0.48   -0.31 (-1.81 to +1.18) 0.49
Physical Activity2      
   Low 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   Medium -0.36 (-1.35 to +0.64) 0.48   -0.23 (-0.66 to +0.19) 0.29
   High -0.33 (-1.28 to +0.64) 0.51   -0.14 (-0.55 to +0.27) 0.49
Soy consumers3 +1.39 (+0.46 to +2.32) 0.003   +0.56 (+0.16 to +0.96) 0.006
Nuts consumption      
   ≤1/week 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   2 to 4/week -0.11 (-0.95 to +0.74) 0.80   -0.05 (-0.41 to +0.31) 0.78
   ≥5/week -0.26 (-1.10 to +0.58) 0.55   -0.02 (-0.37 to +0.34) 0.94
Diet4      
   Non-vegetarian 0 (Ref.)    0 (Ref.)  
   Semi-vegetarian -1.04 (-1.95 to -0.13) 0.03   -0.42 (-0.81 to -0.04) 0.03
   Vegetarian -0.61 (-1.44 to +0.22) 0.15   -0.25 (-0.60 to +0.10) 0.17
  1. 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval.
  2. *Difference = Self-reported - Measured.
  3. All the variables are adjusted through a multivariate linear regression analysis for the all variables shown in the table.
  4. 1) Low: <10,000$, medium: ≥10,000 - <30,000$, High: ≥30,000$.
  5. 2) Low: < 20 minutes of non-vigorous activity; medium: ≥20 minutes of non-vigorous activity; high: ≥20 minutes of vigorous activity.
  6. 3) Soy consumers: ≥ 1 g of soy protein consumption per day.
  7. 4) Semi-vegetarian: low meat consumption and pesco; Vegetarian: Vegan and Lactovegetarian.