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Table 2 Distribution of potential household determinants of SODIS-use

From: Factors associated with compliance among users of solar water disinfection in rural Bolivia

     Groups based on SODIS-use behaviour
  Total Group 1
('non-adopters')
Group 2
('minimal-adopters')
Group 3
('declining-adopters')
Group 4
('emerging-adopters')
 
  n = 216 n = 60 n = 68 n = 21 n = 42 P- values*
Demography                 
Number of household members 216 6.0 (5;9) 60 6.0 (5;8.5) 68 6.0 (4;9) 21 6.0 (5;7) 42 7.0 (5;9) 0.24
Age of household members 216 15.8 (13;18.1) 60 15.5 (13.7;17.6) 68 15.9 (13.3;18.7) 21 15.9 (13;17.8) 42 16.0 (12.1;18.4) 0.88
Number of females 216 3.0 (2;4) 60 3.0 (2;4) 68 3.0 (2;5) 21 3.0 (2;4) 42 4.0 (3;6) 0.04
Pregnant women at start of campaign 216 0.0 (0;0) 60 0.0 (0;0) 68 0.0 (0;0) 21 0.0 (0;0) 42 0.0 (0;0) 0.09
Children aged < 5 216 1.0 (1;2) 60 1.0 (1;2) 68 2.0 (1;2) 21 1.0 (1;2) 42 2.0 (1;2) 0.06
Children aged 5-9 216 1.0 (0;2) 60 2.0 (0;2) 68 1.0 (0;2) 21 1.0 (0;2) 42 1.0 (1;2) 0.60
Children aged 10-14 216 0.0 (0;1) 60 0.0 (0;2) 68 0.0 (0;1) 21 0.0 (0;1) 42 0.0 (0;2) 0.80
Members aged 15-19 216 0.0 (0;1) 60 0.0 (0;1) 68 1.0 (0;1) 21 0.0 (0;1) 42 0.0 (0;1) 0.95
Members aged > = 20 216 2.0 (2;2) 60 2.0 (2;2) 68 2.0 (2;2.5) 21 2.0 (2;2) 42 2.0 (2;2) 0.17
Caregivers' age 208 28.0 (23;36) 58 28.8 (23;35) 67 29.0 (23;37) 19 30.0 (22;36) 41 28.0 (23;40) 0.87
Socioeconomic characteristics                 
Years of household heads' schooling 155 4.0 (3;5) 43 4.0 (2;5) 52 4.0 (3;5) 14 4.0 (3;5) 28 4.0 (2.5;5) 0.38
Monthly household income in US$ 120 16.9 (0;37.5) 35 12.5 (0;25) 37 12.5 (0;31.3) 7 25.0 (12.5;37.5) 24 31.3 (0;47.5) 0.25
Bicycle: n (%) 192 107 (55.7) 49 25 (51) 65 40 (61.5) 18 14.0 (77.8) 39 17.0 (43.6) 0.07
Radio: n (%) 192 158 (82.3) 49 41 (83.7) 65 55 (84.6) 18 13 (72.2) 39 30 (76.9) 0.53
Gas cooker: n (%) 181 32 (17.7) 53 9 (17) 66 16 (24.2) 20 3 (15) 42 4 (9.5) 0.28
Number of rooms 192 3.0 (2;4) 49 2.0 (2;3) 65 3.0 (2;4) 18 3.0 (2;3) 39 3.0 (2;4) 0.29
Latrine: n (%) 192 34 (17.7) 49 4 (8.2) 65 5 (7.7) 18 10 (55.6) 39 10 (25.6) >0.001
Electricity: n (%) 192 36 (18.8) 49 11 (22.5) 65 16 (24.6) 18 1 (5.6) 39 3 (7.7) 0.06
Solar panel: n (%) 130 30 (23) 29 9 (31) 50 8 (16) 12 3 (25) 25 5 (20) 0.44
Tiled roof: n (%) 181 57 (31.5) 53 19 (35.9) 66 18 (27.3) 20 8 (40) 42 12 (28.6) 0.60
Environmental housing factors                 
Use of improved water source: n (%)** 192 149 (77.6) 49 36 (73.5) 65 53 (81.5) 18 15 (83.3) 39 29 (74.4) 0.69
Use of unimproved water source: n (%)*** 192 133 (69.3) 49 37 (75.5) 65 48 (73.9) 18 10 (55.6) 39 24 (61.5) 0.23
Distance to water source in metres. 192 22.5 (5;50) 49 100.0 (10;200) 65 30.0 (7;100) 18 5.0 (4;30) 39 10.0 (5;200) 0.03
Turbidity of source water (NTU) 101 5.0 (5;20) 30 5.0 (5;40) 34 5.0 (5;20) 7 5.0 (5;40) 19 5.0 (5;15) 0.79
Faecal contamination of housing environment: n (%) 185 106 (57.3) 50 31 (62) 62 34 (54.8) 16 9 (56.3) 36 16 (44.4) 0.46
Animals present in the kitchen: n (%) 168 45 (26.8) 42 15 (35.7) 57 13 (22.8) 15 3 (20) 33 6 (18.2) 0.32
Soap, detergent present in the kitchen: n (%) 166 29 (17.5) 41 6 (14.6) 56 12 (21.4) 15 3 (20) 33 4 (12.1) 0.68
Household members health status                 
Households with at least one stunted child < 5: n (%) 167 62 (37.1) 43 12 (27.9) 53 19 (35.9) 17 8 (47.1) 35 16 (45.7) 0.33
Households with at least one wasted child < 5: n (%) 167 85 (50.9) 43 17 (39.5) 53 25 (47.2) 17 11 (64.7) 35 23 (65.7) 0.08
Diarrhoea incidence in children < 5 before start of intervention 216 3.0 (0;7) 60 3.0 (0;5) 68 3.0 (1;7) 21 6.0 (1;12) 42 3.0 (0;6) 0.22
Diarrhoea prevalence (%) in children < 5 before start of intervention 216 7.0 (1;14) 60 5.0 (0;12) 68 8.0 (2;14) 21 7.0 (2;32) 42 6.0 (0;17) 0.26
Cough prevalence (%) in children < 5 before start of intervention 216 8.0 (0;20) 60 5.0 (0;17) 68 8.0 (2;21) 21 1.0 (0;17) 42 10.0 (0;24) 0.72
Fever prevalence (%) in children < 5 before start of intervention 216 7.0 (2;15) 60 6.0 (0;16) 68 5.0 (1;11) 21 6.0 (2;19) 42 7.0 (2;22) 0.58
Hand-washing behaviour                 
Hand-washing per day of children > 5 and adults 169 4.0 (3;5) 44 4.0 (3;5) 57 3.0 (3;5) 15 3.0 (3;5) 33 4.0 (3;5) 0.27
Hand-washing per day of children < 5 192 2.6 (2;3) 49 2.5 (2;3) 65 2.5 (2;3) 18 3.0 (2;3) 39 2.7 (2;3) 0.96
Household water management                 
Safe storage: n (%) 155 19 (12.3) 34 4 (11.8) 57 5 (8.8) 14 5 (37.5) 30 2 (6.7) 0.06
Water disinfection: n (%) 192 42 (21.9) 49 12 (4.5) 65 13 (20) 18 5 (27.8) 39 9 (23.1) 0.86
Household water consumption [l/household day] 189 40 (20;50) 58 35 (20;50) 67 40 (20;60) 21 50 (20;60) 41 30 (20;60) 0.81
Satisfied with quality of drinking water: n (%) 201 190 (94.5) 54 51 (94.4) 64 59 (92.2) 19 19 (94.7) 40 39 (97.5) 0.76
  1. Baseline data are median (Q1; Q3), otherwise specified. *: Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact test for comparing group 1, 2, 3, and 4; **: Improved water source: piped water into dwelling, plot or yard; tubewell/borehole; protected spring; rainwater collection. ***: Unimproved water source: unprotected dug well or spring; bowser-truck; surface water (river, dam, pond, irrigation channels)