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Table 3 Risk factors by pattern of health service use

From: Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

  Timing of first antenatal visit Number of antenatal visits
  ≤12 weeks'
gestation
No. (%)
> 12 weeks'
gestation
No. (%)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
< 5 visits
No. (%)
5-8 visits
No. (%)
> 8 visits
No. (%)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)**
Maternal age        
≤24 years 365 (88.2) 49 (11.8) 1.00 ref 29 (7.3) 168 (42.4) 199 (50.3) 1.00 ref
≥25 years 3597 (95.2) 180 (4.8) 2.68
(1.9-3.7)
144 (3.9) 1503 (40.1) 2048 (55.4) 1.95
(1.3-2.9)
Adjusted household income (AUD)        
< $20,000 839 (89.7) 96 (10.3) 2.94
(2.1-4.0)
53 (5.9) 412 (45.6) 439 (48.6) 1.62
(1.1-2.3)
$20,000-$40,000 1878 (96.3) 73 (3.7) 1.00 ref 71 (3.7) 770 (40.3) 1072 (56.0) 1.00 ref
> $40,000 941 (96.2) 37 (3.8) 1.01
(0.7-1.5)
30 (3.1) 372 (38.6) 561 (58.3) 0.83
(0.5-1.3)
Educational attainment        
Completed year 12 3243 (94.9) 173 (5.1) 1.00 ref 118 (3.5) 1351 (40.4) 1875 (56.1) 1.00 ref
Did not complete year 12 821 (92.5) 67 (7.6) 1.53
(1.1-2.0)
59 (6.9) 360 (41.9) 440 (51.2) 2.02
(1.5-2.8)
Maternal country of birth        
Australia 3330 (94.8) 182 (5.2) 1.00 ref 129 (3.7) 1375 (40.0) 1936 (56.3) 1.00 ref
Overseas - English speaking 247 (91.8) 22 (8.2) 1.63
(1.0-2.6)
16 (6.3) 117 (45.7) 123 (48.1) 1.71
(1.0-2.9)
Overseas - Non-English speaking 484 (93.3) 35 (6.7) 1.32
(0.9-1.9)
29 (5.8) 216 (43.1) 256 (51.1) 1.58
(1.0-2.4)
Relationship status        
Married 3155 (95.7) 143 (4.3) 1.00 ref 118 (3.6) 1292 (40.0) 1821 (56.4) 1.00 ref
Living with partner 764 (92.0) 66 (8.0) 1.9
(1.4-2.6)
44 (5.5) 349 (43.4) 412 (51.2) 1.52
(1.0-2.2)
Single/divorced/separated 161 (84.3) 30 (15.7) 4.11
(2.7-6.3)
16 (8.9) 76 (42.2) 88 (48.9) 2.57
(1.5-4.4)
Risk of complications in pregnancy        
Lower risk 2470 (93.9) 160 (6.1) 1.0 ref 108 (4.2) 1147 (44.8) 1306 (51.0) 1.00 ref
Higher risk 1622 (95.2) 82 (4.8) 0.78
(0.6-1.0)
71 (4.3) 576 (34.5) 1022 (61.2) 1.01
(0.7-1.4)
Maternal pre-pregnant BMI        
Underweight (< 18.5) 167 (92.8) 13 (7.2) 1.41
(0.8-2.6)
8 (4.6) 67 (38.3) 100 (57.1) 1.05
(0.5-2.2)
Normal weight (18.5-24.9) 2268 (94.8) 125 (5.2) 1.00 ref 102 (4.4) 963 (41.3) 1266 (54.3) 1.00 ref
Overweight (25.0-29.9) 855 (94.6) 49 (5.4) 1.04
(0.7-1.5)
40 (4.5) 363 (40.7) 490 (54.9) 1.02
(0.7-1.5)
Obese (≥30) 546 (94.0) 35 (6.0) 1.16
(0.8-1.7)
15 (2.6) 226 (39.7) 328 (57.6) 0.59
(0.3-1.0)
Smoking in pregnancy        
Non-smoker 3310 (94.8) 181 (5.2) 1.00 ref 124 (3.6) 1377 (40.4) 1906 (55.9) 1.00 ref
Quit in pregnancy 327 (93.7) 22 (6.3) 1.23
(0.8-1.9)
13 (3.8) 142 (41.3) 189 (54.9) 1.04
(0.6-1.9)
Smoking throughout pregnancy 363 (91.2) 35 (8.8) 1.76
(1.2-2.6)
34 (8.8) 166 (42.9) 187 (48.3) 2.55
(1.7-3.8)
Stressful life events/social health issues        
None 1361 (95.3) 67 (4.7) 1.00 ref 40 (2.9) 551 (39.5) 805 (57.7) 1.00 ref
One to two issues 2009 (94.3) 122 (5.7) 1.36
(0.9-2.0)
94 (4.5) 865 (41.4) 1130 (54.1) 1.6
(1.1-2.3)
≥3 issues 709 (93.0) 53 (7.0) 2.06
(1.3-3.1)
44 (6.0) 301 (41.1) 387 (52.9) 2.17
(1.4-3.4)
  1. ** Odds ratios in the last column refer to comparisons of women attending <5 visits with women attending ≥ 5 visits.