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Table 2 Relationship between stressful life events/social health issues, perceived discrimination and social and obstetric characteristics

From: Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

  No
social health issues
No. (%)
One to two
social health issues
No. (%)
Three or more social health issues
No. (%)
Odds Ratio (95% CI)* Never experienced discrimination
No. (%)
Experienced discrimination
No. (%)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)**
Maternal age        
≤24 years 84 (20.3) 166 (40.2) 163 (39.5) 4.48
(3.4-5.9)
250 (60.7) 162 (39.3) 2.00
(1.6-2.5)
≥25 years 1315 (34.7) 1900 (50.2) 570 (15.1) 1.00 ref 2853 (75.6) 923 (24.4) 1.00 ref
Adjusted household income (AUD)        
< $20,000 239 (25.6) 400 (42.9) 296 (31.7) 2.95
(2.4-3.7)
619 (66.5) 312 (33.5) 1.50
(1.3-1.8)
$20,000- $40,000 684 (35.0) 983 (50.3) 287 (14.7) 1.00 ref 1463 (74.9) 490 (25.1) 1.00 ref
> $40,000 364 (37.3) 524 (53.7) 88 (9.0) 0.58
(0.4-0.8)
764 (78.0) 215 (22.0) 0.84
(0.7-1.0)
Educational attainment        
Completed Yr 12 1152 (33.7) 1739 (50.9) 529 (15.5) 1.00 ref 2556 (74.9) 856 (25.1) 1.00 ref
Did not complete Yr 12 272 (30.6) 390 (43.8) 228 (25.6) 1.83
(1.5-2.3)
617 (69.6) 270 (30.4) 1.31
(1.1-1.5)
Indigenous status        
Not Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander 1328 (33.2) 1999 (50.1) 713 (16.7) 100 ref 2968 (73.6) 1067 (26.4) 1.00 ref
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander 8 (25.8) 11 (35.5) 12 (38.7) 2.79
(1.1-6.9)
21 (67.7) 10 (32.3) 1.32
(0.6-2.8)
Maternal country of birth        
Australia 1165 (33.2) 1716 (48.8) 633 (18.0) 1.00 ref 2604 (74.2) 906 (25.8) 1.00 ref
Overseas - English speaking 82 (30.5) 149 (55.4) 38 (14.1) 0.85
(0.5-1.3)
195 (72.0) 76 (28.0) 1.12
(0.8-1.5)
Overseas - Non English speaking 178 (34.0) 258 (49.3) 87 (16.6) 0.90
(0.7-1.2)
381 (73.1) 140 (26.9) 1.06
(0.8-1.3)
Relationship status        
Married 1181 (35.7) 1696 (51.2) 437 (12.2) 1.00 ref 2511 (76.3) 779 (23.7) 1.00 ref
Living with partner 236 (28.3) 379 (46.8) 219 (26.3) 2.51
(2.0-3.1)
555 (66.9) 274 (33.1) 1.59
(1.3-1.9)
Single/divorce/separated 20 (10.4) 61 (38.5) 111 (57.8) 15.0
(9.2-24.4)
119 (62.6) 71 (37.4) 1.92
(1.4-2.6)
Maternal pre-pregnant BMI        
Underweight (< 18.5) 46 (25.3) 91 (50.0) 45 (24.7) 2.08
(1.4-3.2)
121 (68.0) 57 (32.0) 1.44
(1.0-2.0)
Normal weight (18.5-24.9) 814 (34.0) 1197 (50.0) 382 (16.0) 1.00 ref 1802 (75.5) 586 (24.5) 1.00 ref
Overweight (25-29.9) 308 (34.0) 435 (48.1) 162 (17.9) 1.12
(0.9-1.4)
669 (74.0) 235 (26.0) 1.08
(0.9-1.3)
Obese (≥30) 184 (31.6) 284 (48.7) 115 (19.7) 1.33
(1.0-1.7)
412 (71.0) 168 (29.0) 1.25
(1.0-1.5)
Smoking during pregnancy        
Non-smoker 1232 (35.1) 1760 (50.2) 514 (14.7) 1.00 ref 2623 (75.2) 864 (24.8) 1.00 ref
Quit in pregnancy 95 (27.1) 169 (48.2) 87 (24.8) 2.20
(1.6-3.0)
248 (71.5) 99 (28.5) 1.21
(0.9-1.5)
Smoking throughout pregnancy 86 (21.5) 162 (40.5) 152 (38.0) 4.24
(3.2-5.6)
245 (62.0) 150 (38.0) 1.86
(1.5-2.3)
Medical risk        
Lower risk 960 (36.3) 1295 (48.9) 392 (14.8) 1.00 ref 2008 (76.3) 624 (23.7) 1.00ref
Higher risk 480 (28.2) 849 (49.8) 376 (22.1) 1.92
(1.6-2.3)
1184 (70.0) 508 (30.0) 1.38
(1.2-1.6)
Gestation        
≥37 weeks 1333 (33.7) 1939 (49.0) 686 (17.33) 1.00 ref 2913 (74.1) 1020 (25.9) 1.00 ref
< 37 weeks 79 (28.3) 146 (52.3) 54 (19.4) 1.32
(0.9-1.9)
198 (71.2) 80 (28.8) 1.15
(0.9-1.5)
Infant birthweight        
≥2500 grams 1332 (33.6) 1954 (49.3) 676 (17.1) 1.00 ref 2903 (73.8) 1032 (26.2) 1.00 ref
< 2500 grams 44 (24.7) 88 (49.4) 46 (25.8) 2.06
(1.3-3.1)
121 (68.0) 57 (32.0) 1.32
(1.0-1.8)
  1. * Odds ratios in this column refer to comparisons between women who experienced ≥2 stressful life events with those who experienced no events
  2. ** Odds ratios in the last column refer to comparisons between women who experienced discrimination with those reporting no discrimination