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Table 4 Factors regarding the health belief model associated with obtaining influenza vaccination.

From: Factors associated with influenza vaccination status of residents of a rural community in Japan

Age group < 18 years (n = 141) 18 to 64 years (n = 634) ≥65 years (n = 366)
Factors regarding the health belief model Vac Unvac OR* (95%CI) P Vac Unvac OR (95%CI) P Vac Unvac OR (95%CI) p
Think that influenza vaccination (IV) is effective in preventing influenza illness             
1. Strongly agree 26 17 10.5 (2.68, 41.7) < 0.001 79 86 8.85 (4.61, 16.9) < 0.001 179 16 19.9 (8.28, 48.0) < 0.001
2. Moderately agree 29 45 4.53 (1.22, 16.7) 0.024 95 217 4.25 (2.27, 7.94) < 0.001 72 37 3.36 (1.48, 7.61) 0.004
3-5. Not sure or moderately/strongly disagree 3 20 1.00   13 121 1.00   12 21 1.00  
Think that IV has potential adverse effects             
1-2. Strongly/moderately agree 30 26 1.20 (0.51, 2.82) 0.67 61 102 0.80 (0.52, 1.22) 0.31 43 12 0.34 (0.15, 0.78) 0.011
3. Not sure 1 18 0.04 (0.01, 0.41) 0.006 11 94 0.16 (0.08, 0.32) < 0.001 18 13 0.13 (0.05, 0.32) < 0.001
4. Moderately disagree 9 11 0.79 (0.24, 2.52) 0.69 30 67 0.63 (0.37, 1.05) 0.079 33 11 0.28 (0.11, 0.65) 0.003
5. Strongly disagree 18 18 1.00   86 119 1.00   172 17 1.00  
Have practical barriers/inconveniences to obtaining IV at clinics             
1-2. Strongly/moderately agree 18 22 1.31 (0.54, 3.14) 0.54 38 79 0.84 (0.51, 1.38) 0.49 17 15 0.13 (0.05, 0.31) < 0.001
3. Not sure 3 17 0.27 (0.07, 1.10) 0.068 18 105 0.30 (0.16, 0.54) < 0.001 26 13 0.24 (0.10, 0.57) < 0.001
4. Moderately disagree 12 9 2.11 (0.72, 6.19) 0.17 65 110 1.08 (0.70, 1.68) 0.70 81 26 0.38 (0.19, 0.75) 0.006
5. Strongly disagree 18 27 1.00   65 116 1.00   138 17 1.00  
Have often upper respiratory infection             
1. Yes 7 14 0.89 (0.32, 2.50) 0.84 42 64 1.79 (1.13, 2.83) 0.013 63 13 2.02 (1.02, 4.03) 0.044
2. Not sure 30 49 1.83 (0.83, 4.04) 0.13 94 249 0.99 (0.65, 1.49) 0.96 116 49 1.33 (0.77, 2.28) 0.30
3. No 20 19 1.00   48 129 1.00   88 28 1.00  
Feel vulnerable to influenza illness             
1. Strongly agree 15 16 2.99 (1.02, 6.93) 0.045 24 20 5.06 (2.55, 10.0) < 0.001 40 3 8.22 (2.36, 28.6) < 0.001
2. Moderately agree 35 36    87 141 2.61 (1.69, 4.02) < 0.001 116 32 2.13 (1.20, 3.76) 0.009
3. Not sure 6 14 1.51 (0.37, 6.06) 0.55 32 103 1.28 (0.76, 2.16) 0.34 46 19 1.49 (0.76, 2.94) 0.24
4-5. Strongly/moderately disagree 5 17 1.00   42 177 1.00   62 37 1.00  
Be afraid that influenza illness may become severe when infected             
1. Strongly agree 4 13 2.65 (1.01, 6.93) 0.047 20 26 2.86 (1.46, 5.59) 0.002 54 5 6.84 (2.47, 18.8) < 0.001
2. Moderately agree 28 29    72 132 2.03 (1.31, 3.14) 0.001 121 32 2.38 (1.32, 4.29) 0.004
3. Not sure 19 16 4.25 (1.45, 12.4) 0.008 44 113 1.39 (0.86, 2.25) 0.17 34 19 1.14 (0.56, 2.32) 0.71
4-5. Strongly/moderately disagree 7 25 1.00   46 171 1.00   52 33 1.00  
Had a hard experience with severe influenza illness previously             
1. Yes 21 20 1.73 (0.79, 3.80) 0.16 53 91 1.65 (1.08, 2.52) 0.018 38 7 1.94 (0.82, 4.59) 0.12
2. No 27 44 1.00   87 244 1.00   178 63 1.00  
3. Not sure/Don't know 10 19 0.97 (0.38, 2.46) 0.95 38 106 1.05 (0.68, 1.63) 0.81 50 22 0.81 (0.45, 1.44) 0.47
  1. * Vac: Vaccinated, Unvac: Unvaccinated, OR: Odds ratio, CI: Confidence interval.
  2. Note: ORs were adjusted for gender and year of survey.