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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (means and proportion) of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, according to educational attainment. Statistical variance shown in parentheses represents 95% confidence intervals.

From: Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

   Educational Attainment (years)  
  All Participants ≤12 13-16 ≥17 P*
Female      
   N 2024 970 838 216  
   Age (years) 36.2 (35.8, 36.6) 38.3 (37.7, 38.9) 34.8 (34.1, 35.4) 32.3 (31.2, 33.5) <0.0001
   Year of Birth 1937 (1936, 1937) 1935 (1934, 1935) 1938 (1938, 1939) 1941 (1940, 1942) <0.0001
   Systolic Blood Pressure, mmHg 118 (117, 119) 120 (119, 121) 117 (116, 118) 114 (112, 116) <0.0001
   Diastolic Blood Pressure, mmHg 75.9 (75.5, 76.3) 76.8 (76.1, 77.5) 75.7 (75.0, 76.3) 72.9 (71.7, 74.1) <0.0001
   Anti-Hypertensive Medication, % 3.0 3.8 2.5 1.4 0.035
   Alcohol Consumption (drinks/week) 4.4 (4.2, 4.7) 4.2 (3.8, 4.6) 4.5 (4.1, 4.9) 5.2 (4.2, 6.1) 0.037
   Body Mass Index, kg/m2 24.0 (23.8, 24.1) 24.5 (24.3, 24.8) 23.5 (23.2, 23.7) 23.2 (22.7, 23.7) <0.0001
   Current Smoker, % 42.6 47.3 39.3 33.8 <0.0001
Male      
   N 1866 757 697 412  
   Age (years) 37.2 (36.8, 37.7) 40.0 (39.3, 40.7) 35.6 (34.9, 36.3) 34.8 (33.9, 35.7) <0.0001
   Year of Birth 1936 (1935, 1936) 1933 (1932, 1934) 1937 (193, 1938) 1938 (1937, 1939) <0.0001
   Systolic Blood Pressure, mmHg 126 (126, 127) 128 (127, 129) 126 (125, 127) 124 (123, 125) <0.0001
   Diastolic Blood Pressure, mmHg 81.9 (81.5, 82.4) 82.9 (82.2, 83.7) 81.5 (80.7, 82.2) 80.8 (79.9, 81.7) 0.0008
   Anti-Hypertensive Medication, % 3.5 4.0 2.9 3.4 0.482
   Alcohol Consumption (drinks/week) 11.0 (10.5, 11.6) 12.6 (11.6, 13.7) 10.5 (9.6, 11.3) 9.1 (8.1, 10.1) <0.0001
   Body Mass Index, kg/m2 26.5 (26.4, 26.7) 26.9 (26.6, 27.1) 26.4 (26.2, 26.7) 26.1 (25.7, 26.4) 0.0002
   Current Smoker, % 43.7 49.4 47.7 26.3 <0.0001
  1. To test the trend across education level, we used t tests for continuous variables, and Cochran-Armitage tests for categorical variables.
  2. Pearson chi-square tests comparing males and females for proportion taking anti-hypertensive medication, and proportion current smokers demonstrated P-values of 0.41 and 0.49, respectively.