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Table 1 Participants' Characteristics at Baseline by Race/Ethnicity

From: Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence

  White n = 137 Black n = 144 Latino n = 140  
  n [%] or mean (±SD) n [%] or mean (±SD) n [%] or mean (±SD) p value
Demographics     
Sex     0.022
   Female 78 [56.9] 86 [59.7] 62 [44.3]  
   Male 59 [43.1] 58 [40.3] 78 [55.7]  
Age 42.9 (±11.7) 44.8 (±9.9) 36 (±10.2) <0.001
Partner Status     <0.001
   Married/living with partner 42 [30.9] 35 [24.5] 67 [48.6]  
   Other (e.g., single) 94 [69.1] 108 [75.5] 71 [51.4]  
Socioeconomic Status     
Annual Household Income     <0.001
   <20,000 47 [39.2] 76 [57.1] 35 [29.4]  
   ≥20,000 73 [60.8] 57 [42.9] 84 [70.6]  
Educational Level     0.009
   <High school 14 [10.3] 17 [11.9] 27 [19.6]  
   High school/GED 29 [21.3] 29 [34.3] 42 [30.4]  
   Some college (no degree) 43 [31.6] 44 [30.8] 41 [29.7]  
   College degree 50 [36.8] 33 [23.0] 28 [20.3]  
Employment Status     <0.001
   Employed 71 [52.6] 68 [47.9] 101 [73.0]  
   Unemployed 64 [47.4] 74 [52.1] 37 [26.8]  
Smoking Characteristics     
Average number of CPD 23.4 (±9.1) 20.9 (±12.0) 19 (±9.0) 0.001
Number of years smoked 23.2 (±11.8) 23.5 (±11.3) 18 (±9.3) <0.001
Social Status Ladder 6.0 (±1.9) 5.8 (±1.7) 6.0 (±1.8) 0.507
  1. Note: CPD = Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline. GED = General Equivalency Diploma.
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