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Table 2 Descriptive data for 'current situation' in relationship variables, and AORs* and 95%CIs for associations with current IPV among ever partnered women

From: What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence

  BGD rural (n = 926) BGD urban (n = 1050) BRA rural (n = 919) BRA urban (n = 746) ETH rural (n = 1861) JPN urban (n = 1075) NAM urban (n = 1154)   
  % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI)   
Demographics
SES
Low 76 - 72 - 26 - 34 - 84 - 30 - 27 -   
Medium 20 0.71 (0.49 - 1.0) 22 0.68 (0.48 - 0.96) 64 0.63 (0.40 - 0.99) 40 0.99 (0.54 - 1.8) 14 0.91 (0.66 - 1.3) 23 0.71 (0.33 - 1.5) 26 1.3 (0.81 - 2.0)   
High 4 0.69 (0.34 - 1.4) 7 0.33 (0.17 - 0.66) 11 0.75 (0.35 - 1.6) 26 0.25 (0.09 - 0.67) 2 0.53 (0.25 - 1.1) 47 0.24 (0.10 - 0.58) 47 0.94 (0.61 - 1.5)   
Woman's age
35+ 35 - 28 - 39 - 46 - 41 - 54 - 36 -   
20-35 yrs 57 2.1 (1.5 - 3.1) 64 2.7 (1.8 - 4.0) 54 1.7 (1.0 - 2.7) 47 2.4 (1.2 - 4.6) 55 2.4 (1.9 - 3.1) 44 0.78 (0.38 - 1.62) 58 0.93 (0.62 - 1.4)   
15-19 yrs 8 3.2 (1.7 - 6.2) 9 4.1 (2.2 - 7.7) 8 2.9 (1.2 - 6.7) 6 4.2 (1.3 - 13.1) 4 1.7 (0.97 - 3.1) 2 1.1 (0.09 - 13.6) 6 1.1 (0.47 - 2.4)   
Age gap with partner (> = 5 yrs)
None 11 - 16 - 52 - 58 - 11 - 75 - 55 -   
She is > = 5 yrs older 0 -- 0.1 -- 5 0.89 (0.33 - 2.4) 6 1.3 (0.42 - 3.8) 1 1.1 (0.31 - 3.6) 2 0.65 (0.07 - 6.0) 2 1.2 (0.46 - 3.2)   
He is > = 5 yrs older 89 0.90 (0.56 - 1.44) 84 0.81 (0.56 - 1.2) 43 0.99 (0.67 - 1.5) 36 0.89 (0.50 - 1.6) 88 1.3 (0.93 - 1.7) 24 0.92 (0.42 - 2.0) 43 0.96 (0.69 - 1.34)   
Relative education
Same level 64 - 61 - 60 - 61 - 71 - 92 - 54 -   
He has higher 28 0.74 (0.50 - 1.09) 34 1.1 (0.84 - 1.6) 11 1.6 (0.83 - 2.9) 17 0.73 (0.35 - 1.6) 8 1.0 (0.50 - 2.1) 2 1.6 (0.33 - 8.3) 22 1.2 (0.80 - 1.8)   
She has higher 7 0.83 (0.58 - 1.19) 5 1.1 (0.74 - 1.7) 19 1.6 (0.97 - 2.7) 18 1.1 (0.53 - 2.1) 2 1.3 (0.82 - 1.9) 6 0.94 (0.25 - 3.6) 12 1.0 (0.63 - 1.7)   
Missing - -- - -- 10 1.5 (0.80 - 2.7) 5 0.1 (0.02 - 0.50) 20 1.4 (1.1 - 1.8) - -- 13 0.98 (0.58 - 1.6)   
Relative employment
Both working 18 - 15 - 31 - 56 - 36 - 53 - 48 -   
Man working 74 0.58 (0.40 - 0.83) 80 0.88 (0.60 - 1.3) 52 0.83 (0.52 - 1.3) 31 1.3 (0.70 - 2.4) 62 0.99 (0.79 - 1.2) 40 1.4 (0.7 - 3.0) 35 1.19 (0.82 - 1.7)   
Woman working 2 1.0 (0.40 - 2.6) 1 0.72 (0.10 - 5.2) 7 1.0 (0.48 - 2.2) 8 2.8 (1.2 - 6.7) 1 0.75 (0.26 - 2.1) 5 6.0 (1.5 - 23.3) 7 0.83 (0.43 - 1.6)   
Neither working 6 0.99 (0.52 - 1.9) 4 0.75 (0.33 - 1.7) 10 1.2 (0.63 - 2.4) 5 1.1 (0.36 - 3.3) 1 0.54 (0.20 - 1.5) 2 No cases 10 1.9 (1.1 - 3.2)   
Attitudes
Reasons for a man to hit partner
None 20 - 47 - 69 - 90 - 8 - 82 - 79 -   
Any 80 2.5 (1.7 - 3.6) 53 1.9 (1.4 - 2.5) 31 1.5 (1.0 - 2.2) 10 2.8 (1.4 - 5.8) 92 1.6 (1.1 - 2.2) 18 1.7 (0.82 - 3.4) 21 1.4 (0.99 - 2.1)   
Alcohol use
Heavy drinking
Neither 100 - 99 - 72 - 86 - 85 - 65 - 62 -   
He 0 -- 1 6.5 (1.4 - 30.9) 24 3.1 (2.1 - 4.6) 11 4.3 (2.2 - 8.4) 13 2.1 (1.5 - 3.0) 33 1.8 (0.94 - 3.6) 28 1.8 (1.2 - 2.5)   
She 0 -- 0 -- 2 5.1 (1.7 - 15.5) 2 8.1 (2.3 - 28.9) 1 1.3 (0.41 - 4.4) 1 1.6 (0.21 - 12.5) 4 2.3 (1.1 - 4.5)   
Both 0 -- 0 -- 2 8.6 (2.8 - 26.7) 1 13.9 (1.9 - 101.0) 1 2.8 (0.79 - 9.9) 1 6.3 (1.0 - 38.0) 6 5.4 (2.9 - 9.9)   
Non-intimate-partner violence
Victim of sexual abuse (>15 yrs)
No 99.6 - 94 - 96 - 94 - 99.7 - 97 - 95 -   
Yes 0.4 -- 6 1.2 (0.67 - 2.2) 4 2.2 (0.92 - 5.2) 6 2.3 (0.97 - 5.6) 0.3 -- 3 7.1 (2.2 - 22.5) 5 7.3 (3.7 - 14.1)   
Victim of physical abuse (>15 yrs)
No 93 - 86 - 88 - 80 - 96 - 96 - 82 -   
Yes 7 1.6 (0.93 - 2.8) 14 1.3 (0.86 - 1.9) 12 1.8 (1.1 - 3.1) 20 2.1 (1.1 - 3.9) 4 2.6 (1.4 - 5.0) 4 5.4 (2.0 - 14.4) 18 2.4 (1.6 - 3.4)   
Partner has fought with other man (past yr)
No 96 - 96 - 92 - 91 - 89 - 97 - 90 -   
Yes 4 5.7 (2.3 - 14.3) 4 4.5 (1.9 - 10.5) 8 4.1 (2.3 - 7.2) 9 3.2 (1.6 - 6.7) 11 4.2 (2.7 - 6.7) 3 11.3 (3.7 - 34.3) 10 2.5 (1.5 - 4.0)   
Other relationships
Woman has children from >1 father
1 father (>1 kid) 77 - 63 - 53 - 43 - 78 - 71 - 28 -   
>1 father 1 2.2 (0.66 - 7.4) 1 4.9 (0.76 - 31.2) 18 1.1 (0.61 - 1.8) 11 2.2 (0.88 - 5.5) 10 0.99 (0.68 - 1.4)) 1 -- 30 1.4 (0.91 - 2.3)   
0-1 kids 21 0.59 (0.38 - 0.94) 36 0.92 (0.64 - 1.3) 30 0.85 (0.48 - 1.5) 46 0.98 (0.46 - 2.1) 12 0.98 (0.63 - 1.5) 28 -- 42 1.4 (0.85 - 2.3)   
Partner has had concurrent relationship(s)
No 95 - 94 - 69 - 81 - 73 - 91 - 57 -   
Yes 3 5.8 (1.6 - 21.7) 3 7.5 (2.4 - 23.1) 25 2.1 (1.4 - 3.1) 13 4.5 (2.3 - 8.8) 27 1.2 (0.97 - 1.6) 3 5.8 (1.7 - 19.8) 23 1.7 (1.2 - 2.4)   
DK/maybe 3 3.4 (1.3 - 9.2) 3 2.1 (0.85 - 5.1) 6 1.2 (0.52 - 2.6) 6 2.7 (1.0 - 7.0) 0.3 0.52 (0.10 - 2.8) 6 0.63 (0.15 - 2.6) 19 0.97 (0.6 - 1.5)   
Characteristics of union
Any marriage ceremony
Married 50 - 78 - 48 - 56 - 98 - 87 - 36 -   
No, living together 50 0.88 (0.66 - 1.2) 22 0.81 (0.57 - 1.1) 48 1.4 (0.89 - 2.1) 30 1.1 (0.57 - 2.1) 2 0.61 (0.30 - 1.3) 0.1 -- 29 1.6 (1.1 - 2.5)   
Not living together - -- - - 5 0.94 (0.34 - 2.6) 15 0.60 (0.20 - 1.8) 0.2 -- 13 0.39 (0.08 - 1.8) 35 0.97 (0.62 - 1.5)   
  PER rural (n = 1005) PER urban (n = 736) SMA (n = 931) SRB urban (n = 954) THA rural (n = 772) THA urban (n = 845) TZA rural (n = 918) TZA urban (n = 1166)
  % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI) % AOR (95%CI)
Demographics
SES
Low 47 - 11 - 15 - 18 - 9 - 10 - 86 - 65 -
Medium 34 1.4 (0.97 - 2.0) 22 0.57 (0.29 - 1.1) 50 0.54 (0.35 - 0.84) 44 0.66 (0.25 - 1.74) 49 0.67 (0.37 - 1.2) 25 0.84 (0.45 - 1.6) 10 0.72 (0.42 - 1.2) 23 1.1 (0.76 - 1.6)
High 19 0.61 (0.36 - 1.0) 66 0.56 (0.30 - 1.0) 36 0.34 (0.21 - 0.56) 38 0.41 (0.15 - 1.18) 42 0.45 (0.24 - 0.85) 65 0.74 (0.41 - 1.3) 4 1.1 (0.51 - 2.5) 12 1.3 (0.81 - 2.2)
Woman's age
35+ 42 - 42 - 44 - 53 - 59 - 48 - 28 - 31 -
20-35 yrs 54 1.4 (0.94 - 2.0) 52 4.6 (2.6 - 8.0) 53 1.6 (1.1 - 2.4) 44 2.04 (0.82 - 5.1) 38 1.1 (0.74 - 1.6) 49 1.8 (1.2 - 2.6) 63 1.9 (1.2 - 2.9) 60 2.0 (1.3 - 3.0)
15-19 yrs 4 2.4 (1.1 - 5.3) 5 11.8 (4.4 - 31.3) 2 2.9 (1.0 - 8.4) 3 16.2 (2.5 - 104.2) 3 1.7 (0.58 - 5.0) 3 3.1 (1.1 - 8.4) 9 3.4 (1.7 - 6.8) 9 2.0 (0.99 - 3.9)
Age gap with partner (> = 5 yrs)
None 61 - 58 - 54 - 66 - 64 - 59 - 38 - 33 -
She is > = 5 yrs older 2 0.84 (0.26 - 2.8) 4 1.8 (0.67 - 5.0) 4 1.9 (0.84 - 4.1) 1 13.3 (1.5 - 115.5) 3 1.2 (0.46 - 3.1) 3 0.47 (0.14 - 1.6) 0.3 -- 0.1 --
He is > = 5 yrs older 37 1.2 (0.87 - 1.7) 39 0.74 (0.48 - 1.1) 42 0.88 (0.64 - 1.2) 33 2.0 (0.91 - 4.4) 33 0.87 (0.59 - 1.3) 38 1.0 (0.69 - 1.4) 61 0.75 (0.55 - 1.0) 67 0.82 (0.60 - 1.1)
Relative education
Same level 54 - 75 - 49 - 90 - 62 - 61 - 65 - 60 -
He has higher 38 1.0 (0.87 - 1.7) 18 1.4 (0.84 - 2.5) 14 0.92 (0.58 - 1.5) 4 4.6 (1.4 - 15.5) 18 1.3 (0.75 - 2.1) 20 1.4 (0.92 - 2.2) 23 1.5 (0.94 - 2.4) 25 0.77 (0.50 - 1.2)
She has higher 5 1.2 (0.81 - 1.9) 5 1.7 (0.82 - 3.4) 8 0.86 (0.45 - 1.7) 3 6.5 (1.5 - 27.1) 11 1.0 (0.62 - 1.7) 10 1.1 (0.62 - 1.9) 9 1.1 (0.74 - 1.6) 7 0.73 (0.48 - 1.1)
Missing 3 3.4 (1.3 - 9.3) 2 6.3 (1.8 - 22.7) 28 1.1 (0.74 - 1.6) 3 4.0 (1.0 - 15.3) 9 1.5 (0.80 - 2.8) 10 0.72 (0.37 - 1.4) 3 1.1 (0.43 - 2.9) 8 1.0 (0.55 - 2.0)
Relative employment
Both working 51 - 59 - 43 - - -- 75 - 70 - 61 - 40 -
Man working 37 1.1 (0.79 - 1.5) 26 0.79 (0.49 - 1.3) 43 0.89 (0.63 - 1.3) - -- 17 0.88 (0.55 - 1.4) 23 0.65 (0.41 - 1.0) 33 1.1 (0.80 - 1.5) 46 0.91 (0.66 - 1.2)
Woman working 8 1.1 (0.63 - 2.0) 11 1.8 (0.99 - 3.4) 7 0.71 (0.35 - 1.4) - -- 6 0.83 (0.39 - 1.8) 5 1.5 (0.74 - 3.2) 3 1.4 (0.55 - 3.6) 6 1.0 (0.55 - 2.0)
Neither working 3 2.2 (0.89 - 5.3) 4 1.2 (0.38 - 3.5) 7 1.2 (0.62 - 2.2) - -- 3 2.0 (0.72 - 5.7) 2 6.4 (1.9 - 21.5) 3 0.92 (0.38 - 2.2) 8 0.72 (0.39 - 1.3)
Attitudes
Reasons for a man to hit partner
None 19 - 67 - 28 - 95 - 29 - 52 - 33 - 37 -
Any 81 1.5 (0.94 - 2.3) 33 1.4 (0.92 - 2.1) 72 1.5 (1.0 - 2.1) 5 1.3 (0.32 - 5.0) 71 0.95 (0.64 - 1.4) 48 0.95 (0.67 - 1.3) 67 1.8 (1.3 - 2.5) 63 1.9 (1.3 - 2.6)
Alcohol use
Heavy drinking
Neither 51 - 70 - 67 - 94 - 64 - 73 - 78 - 78 -
He 31 3.3 (2.3 - 4.6) 19 2.5 (1.5 - 4.1) 32 1.5 (1.1 - 2.1) 6 8.6 (3.5 - 21.3) 26 2.7 (1.9 - 4.0) 21 2.1 (1.4 - 3.1) 18 3.4 (2.3 - 5.1) 19 2.5 (1.8 - 3.6)
She 7 2.1 (1.1 - 3.7) 8 1.0 (0.48 - 2.1) 0.3 -- 0.2 -- 5 2.6 (1.3 - 5.4) 3 1.1 (0.40 - 2.9) 2 1.3 (0.44 - 4.1) 2 1.6 (0.56 - 4.8)
Both 12 11.8 (6.1 - 22.8) 4 1.1 (0.42 - 3.0) 0.3 -- 0 -- 5 6.0 (2.8 - 13.0) 3 2.6 (0.98 - 6.6) 2 4.3 (1.6 - 11.6) 1 2.9 (0.97 - 8.7)
Non-intimate-partner violence
Victim of sexual abuse (>15 yrs)
No 89 - 89 - 91 - 98 - 98 - 94 - 92 - 91 -
Yes 11 2.6 (1.5 - 4.5) 11 2.1 (1.2 - 3.9) 9 1.2 (0.69 - 2.0) 2 0.26 (0.03 - 2.6) 2 1.3 (0.41 - 4.3) 6 2.6 (1.3 - 5.3) 8 1.4 (0.78 - 2.4) 9 2.8 (1.7- 4.5)
Victim of physical abuse (>15 yrs)
No 68 - 72 - 41 - 92 - 91 - 93 - 86 - 83 -
Yes 32 2.0 (1.4 - 2.7) 28 2.3 (1.5 - 3.5) 59 1.2 (0.85 - 1.6) 8 3.1 (1.1 - 8.6) 9 1.9 (1.1 - 3.4) 7 3.0 (1.6 - 5.5) 14 1.3 (0.82 - 1.9) 17 0.93 (0.63 - 1.4)
Partner has fought with other man (past yr)
No 78 - 91 - 82 - 88 - 86 - 88 - 95 - 95 -
Yes 22 2.3 (1.5 - 3.6) 9 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) 18 3.7 (2.5 - 5.4) 12 4.6 (2.0 - 10.6) 14 2.6 (1.6 - 4.1) 12 3.6 (2.2 - 5.8) 5 1.9 (0.84 - 4.2) 5 1.7 (0.89 - 3.2)
Other relationships
Woman has children from >1 father
1 father (>1 kid) 69 - 49 - 70 - 42 - 55 - 47 - 61 - 45 -
>1 father 8 2.2 (1.1 - 4.8) 9 2.2 (0.99 - 5.1) 11 2.1 (1.2 - 3.6) 2 3.6 (0.30 - 41.6) 7 0.89 (0.41 - 1.9) 5 1.5 (0.64 - 3.3) 14 1.5 (0.91 - 2.4) 16 1.4 (0.90 - 2.2)
0-1 kids 23 0.89 (0.55 - 1.4) 41 0.83 (0.47 - 1.5) 19 1.6 (0.94 - 2.6) 56 1.5 (0.53 - 4.2) 38 1.4 (0.89 - 2.1) 48 0.96 (0.62 - 1.5) 25 0.81 (0.51 - 1.3) 40 0.65 (0.42 - 1.0)
Partner has had concurrent relationship(s)
No 67 - 69 - 81 - 87 - 72 - 66 - 61 - 53 -
Yes 20 4.0 (2.6 - 6.2) 17 5.2 (3.1 - 8.7) 17 2.0 (1.3 - 3.0) 4 6.6 (2.0 - 21.7) 19 2.4 (1.6 - 3.7) 17 2.1 (1.4 - 3.3) 21 3.1 (2.1 - 4.5) 16 2.9 (1.9 - 4.2)
DK/maybe 13 2.4 (1.5 - 3.9) 13 2.7 (1.5 - 4.6) 2 -- 8 2.3 (0.75 - 6.8) 9 3.4 (1.9 - 6.0) 16 1.4 (0.86 - 2.2) 18 2.1 (1.5 - 3.2) 31 1.3 (0.91 - 1.8)
Characteristics of union
Any marriage ceremony
Married 59 - 53 - 74 - 69 - 89 - 82 - 57 - 61 -
No, living together 36 1.2 (0.81 - 1.7) 27 1.1 (0.65 - 1.7) 26 2.5 (0.93 - 6.5) 11 3.1 (1.1 - 8.6) 10 1.6 (0.90 - 2.7) 17 0.84 (0.53 - 1.3) 37 1.2 (0.84 - 1.6) 24 1.8 (1.3 - 2.6)
Not living together 6 0.75 (0.34 - 1.7) 20 0.52 (0.26 - 1.0) 0 -- 20 0.34 (0.07 - 1.7) 1 -- 1 -- 6 0.39 (0.17 - 0.88) 15 0.67 (0.40 - 1.1)
  1. *Adjusted for all variables in Table, and parity