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Table 3 Differences in hepatitis B knowledge scores among health professionals in China

From: Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and practices among healthcare and public health professionals in China: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Unadjusted difference 95% Confidence Interval p-value
Sex    
   Male 0.0 reference  
   Female 0.2 (-0.4, 0.7) 0.57
Region of residence    
   Eastern 0.0 reference  
   Central 0.3 (-0.3, 1.0) 0.29
   Western -0.8 (-1.5, -0.2) 0.01
Rural/urban status of residence    
   Rural -1.8 (-2.4, -1.1) <0.001
   Urban 0.0 reference  
Population of town/city of residence    
   <10,000 -1.5 (-2.5, -0.5) 0.005
   10,000-500,000 -0.5 (-1.0, 0.1) 0.12
   500,000-1 million -0.2 (-0.9, 0.5) 0.57
   >1 million 0.0 reference  
Education level    
   Elementary 0.7 (-3.2, 4.7) 0.71
   Middle school -0.3 (-4.2, 3.7) 0.90
   High school -1.8 (-2.7, -0.8) <0.001
   Vocational -1.3 (-2.1, -0.5) 0.002
   University/college 0.0 reference  
   Graduate/professional degree -0.3 (-1.4, 0.7) 0.56
Occupation    
   Physician 0.0 reference  
   Nurse or midwife -5.0 (-6.8, -3.2) <0.001
   Elementary school teacher/admin -3.2 (-7.2, 0.7) 0.11
   Social worker -0.3 (-1.5, 0.9) 0.62
   Government public health worker -0.2 (-1.0, 0.5) 0.57
   Local public health worker -0.2 (-0.8, 0.4) 0.51
   Hospital administrator -0.4 (-1.6, 0.7) 0.45
Family history of chronic hepatitis B    
   Yes 0.0 (-0.6, 0.6) 0.92
   No 0.0 reference  
Family history of liver cancer    
   Yes -0.6 (-1.5, 0.4) 0.25
   No 0.0 reference  
Ever been tested for HBV    
   Yes 1.9 (-0.7, 3.0) 0.002
   No 0.0 reference  
Vaccinated against HBV    
   Yes 0.5 (-0.2, 1.1) 0.19
   No 0.0 reference  
Children vaccinated against HBV    
   Yes 1.1 (-0.2, 2.5) 0.09
   No 0.0 reference  
Ever heard of the Jade Ribbon Campaign   
   Yes 0.0 (-0.6, 0.5) 0.92
   No 0.0 reference  
Hepatitis B health practices    
If someone tests positive for HBV, do you report the results to the ...?
   Only to the patient (± health department) 0.0 reference  
   To the patient and the patient's school or employer -0.5 (-1.1, 0.1) 0.08
   Only to the patient's school or employer -1.9 (-2.6, -1.2) <0.001
Does your city/village restrict HBV-infected individuals from working for the government?
   Yes 0.7 (-0.2, 1.7) 0.11
   No 0.0 reference  
Does your city/village restrict HBV-infected individuals from attending schools?
   Yes 0.5 (-0.2, 1.2) 0.19
   No 0.0 reference  
Does your city/village require HBV-infected individuals to have separate eating utensils/plates?
   Yes 0.0 (-0.8, 0.8) 0.97
   No 0.0 reference  
Does your city/village restrict HBV-infected individuals from working in healthcare?
   Yes 0.2 (-0.5, 0.9) 0.56
   No 0.0 reference  
What population groups receive free hepatitis B vaccines in your city/village?
   Vaccines are free for newborns (± other groups) 0.0 reference  
   Vaccines are free for health workers only -1.6 (-3.4, 0.3) 0.10
   Vaccines are only for purchase 0.3 (-0.7, 1.2) 0.61
   Vaccines are not available -3.5 (-6.4, -0.6) 0.02
What do hospitals do with used needles in your city/village?
   Single use and destroy on site 0.0 reference  
   Single use but collected by supplier for disposal 0.9 (-0.1, 1.9) 0.07
   Disinfect and reuse -3.2 (-4.8, -1.5) <0.001
   Don't know 0.5 (-0.2, 1.2) 0.26
What forms of HBV educational material do you utilize in your workplace?
   Posters 0.3 (-0.5, 1.1) 0.42
   Printed information 0.4 (-0.3, 1.2) 0.28
   Posters and printed information 0.5 (-0.3, 1.3) 0.22
   None 0.0 reference  
  Adjusted difference* 95% Confidence Interval p-value
  0.0 reference  
  -0.1 (-0.5, 0.4) 0.84
  0.0 reference  
  0.0 (-0.6, 0.6) 0.99
  -0.3 (-0.9, 0.3) 0.28
  -1.0 (-1.6, -0.3) 0.004
  0.0 reference  
  -0.5 (-1.5, 0.5) 0.32
  -0.1 (-0.7, 0.4) 0.67
  -0.1 (-0.7, 0.5) 0.79
  0.0 reference  
  0.3 (-3.1, 3.8) 0.85
  -0.6 (-4.0, 2.9) 0.75
  -1.2 (-2.1, -0.3) 0.008
  -1.3 (-2.0, -0.5) <0.001
  0.0 reference  
  0.1 (-0.9, 1.1) 0.84
  0.0 reference  
  -2.4 (-4.3, -0.5) 0.01
  -3.9 (-7.4, -0.4) 0.03
  0.0 (-1.1, 1.1) 0.99
  0.3 (-0.4, 1.0) 0.42
  -0.1 (-0.7, 0.5) 0.77
  -0.2 (-1.3, 0.9) 0.73
  0.0 (-0.5, 0.5) 0.93
  0.0 reference  
  0.0 (-0.9, 0.9) 0.96
  0.0 reference  
  1.2 (0.1, 2.3) 0.03
  0.0 reference  
  0.5 (-0.2, 1.1) 0.15
  0.0 reference  
  0.3 (-0.9, 1.6) 0.62
  0.0 reference  
  0.0 (-0.4, 0.5) 0.84
  0.0 reference  
  0.0 reference  
  -0.2 (-0.8, 0.3) 0.37
  -1.5 (-2.1, -0.9) <0.001
  0.2 (-0.6, 1.1) 0.59
  0.0 reference  
  0.5 (-0.1, 1.2) 0.09
  0.0 reference  
  1. *Adjusted for urban/rural status of residence, education level, occupation, HBV testing practices, HBV test notification practices, and availability of free vaccines
  2. HBV: hepatitis B virus