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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants. Data are given as numbers (%), unless otherwise specified.

From: Drug problems among homeless individuals in Toronto, Canada: prevalence, drugs of choice, and relation to health status

  All participants (N = 1191) With current drug problem (n = 475) Without current drug problem (n = 716) p-value
Age, mean (SD) 36.2 (12.3) 34.2 (11.1) 37.5 (12.9) < 0.001
Sex/family status     < 0.001
   Single male 603 (50.6) 317 (66.7) 286 (39.9)  
   Single female 304 (25.5) 125 (26.3) 179 (25.0)  
   Adult accompanied by children 283 (23.7) 33 (6.9) 250 (34.9)  
Race/ethnicity     < 0.001
   White 662 (55.6) 300 (63.2) 362 (50.6)  
   Black 266 (22.3) 72 (15.2) 194 (27.1)  
   First Nations 100 (8.4) 60 (12.6) 40 (5.6)  
   Other race/ethnicity 163 (13.7) 43 (9.1) 120 (16.8)  
Region of birth     < 0.001
   Canada 812 (68.2) 392 (82.5) 420 (58.7)  
   Outside Canada 379 (31.8) 83 (17.5) 296 (41.3)  
Education     < 0.001
   Some high school or less 597 (50.3) 290 (61.3) 307 (42.9)  
   High school or equivalent 255 (21.5) 92 (19.5) 163 (22.8)  
   Vocational training/college or above 336 (28.3) 91 (19.2) 245 (34.3)  
Age at first episode of homelessness, mean (SD) 28.4 (13.0) 24.8 (11.9) 30.9 (13.2) < 0.001
Duration of current episode of homelessness in months, mean (SD) 15.7 (35.2) 18.7 (37.2) 13.8 (33.7) 0.02
Lifetime years of homelessness in years, mean (SD) 3.7 (5.5) 4.8 (5.6) 2.9 (5.2) < 0.001
Drugs and alcohol reported as an impediment from getting out of homelessness 162 (13.6) 128 (26.9) 34 (4.7) < 0.001
Simultaneous use of >1 drug in past month* 501 (42.1) 363 (76.4) 138 (19.3) < 0.001
Mean pack-years smoked (SD) 17.8 (29.6) 21.5 (24.6) 15.4 (32.3) < 0.001
Mental health problems (present within the last 30 days) 444 (37.3) 212 (44.6) 232 (32.4) < 0.001
  1. * This question was only asked of participants who had ever used drugs in their lifetime.