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Table 2 Study characteristics and methodological aspects of studies measuring health-related quality of life of injury patients at one time point (in order of nr of HRQL instruments used - bold author names are studies of children)

From: A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations

Author, year, country Study population HRQL instrument
(mode of administration)
Follow up
(response rates)
Predictors for HRQL
Braithwaite, 1998, UK [26] Severe injuries
ISS > 15
Age 15+
(n = 212)
BDS
(Face to face interview)
5 years (75%) HRQL associated with body region injured
Korosec, 2006, Slovenia [61] ICU patients
(n = 98)
EQ5D
(Telephone interview)
2 years (% not available) No
Aitken, 1999, US and Canada [22] Hospitalized
Age 7-18
(n = 13649)
FIM
(Filled out by doctors)
Discharge (80%) Functional outcome associated with type of injury.
Lower extremity fractures caused more limitations at discharge as compared to other injuries
Evans, 2003, UK [27] Age 11-24
ISS > 15
(n = 125)
OPCS
(Face to face interview)
5 years (87%) Not measured
Holtslag, 2007, Netherlands [34] Age 16+
ISS > 15
(n = 359)
SIP
(Self-completed)
Between 12-18 months (93%) Age, comorbidity, and type of injury were predictors of HRQL
MacKenzie, 2002, US [19] Admitted > 72 hours or to ICU
Aga 18-59 years
(n = 1587)
SF-36 + cognitive functioning scale
(Face to face interview)
12 months (78%) Cognitive functioning and head injury were predictors of HRQL
Alves, 2009, Brazil [62] ED and admitted >24 hours
Age 16-65
GCS > 9 and ISS > 5
(n = 35)
WHOQOL-BREF
(face-to-face interview)
6 months (88%) Hospitalization, age, and sex were predictors for functional impairment in the physical domain
Airey, 2001, UK [23] Admitted survivors of major trauma
ISS > 15
(n = 367)
SF-36, OPCS
(Face to face interviews)
5 years (84%) HRQL associated with injury severity and general health perception
Pirente, 2001, Germany [63] Admitted and 'severely injured'
(n = 56)
SF-36, TOP
(Telephone interview or self-completed)
12 months (77%) HRQL among trauma patients higher than control group on al SF-36 dimensions (no injury)
Holtslag, 2008, Netherlands [64] Age 16+
ISS > 15
(n = 359)
GOS, EQ-5D
(self-completed)
Between 12-18 months (93%) Injury type and comorbidity were significantly associated with HRQL
Janssens, 2009, Netherlands [38] Admitted to trauma center
Ag < 16
ISS > 15
(n = 40)
GOS and GOSE, AMA guides
(Self-completed and face-to-face interview)
7 years (70%) Good discrimination could be made between respondents with different levels of functional impairment
Dimopoulou, 2004, Greece [65] Admitted multiple trauma patients (n = 117) GOS, NHP, RDS
(Telephone interview)
12 months (74%) HRQL associated with injury severity
ISS and severe head trauma were independent predictors of poor HRQL
Keyes, 2001, US [17] Workers with > 3 days work loss (n = 402) SF-36, HAQ, QOL
(Telephone interview or self-completed)
2 years (93%) No
Stalp, 2001, Germany [66] Admitted
ISS > 15
(n = 150)
SF-12, FIM, GOS, MFA
(Self-completed)
24 months (81%) HRQL associated with body region injured
Stalp, 2002, Germany [67] Admitted
ISS > 15
(n = 312)
SF-12, FIM, GOS, MFA
(Self-completed)
24 months (81%) HRQL associated with body region injured
(highest for lower extremity injury)
  1. AMA-guides = American Medical Association guides; BDS = Bull Disability Scale; CFS = Cognitive Function Scale; CHQ PF-50 = Parent Completed version of the CHQ; CHQ = Child Health Questionnaire; EQ5 D = European Quality of life instrument-5 dimensions;; FIM = Functional Independence Measure; GHQ = General Health Questionnaire; GOS = Glasgow Outcome Scale; HAQ = Health Assessment Questionnaire; HOBQ = Health Outcomes Burn Questionnaire for Children; ICIDH2 = 25 item scale for measuring functional outcome by the International Classification of Impairments Disabilities and Handicaps; MFA = Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment; NHP = Nottingham Health Profile; OPCS = Office of Population Census and Surveys national survey of disability in Great Britain; QOL = Satisfaction with Quality of Life instrument; QWB = Quality of Well Being scale; RDS = Rosser Disease Score; RTW = Return To pre-injury Work status; SF-6D = Medical Outcome Study Short Form-6 dimensions; SF-12 = Medical Outcome Study Short Form-12 items; SF-36 = Medical Outcome Study Short form-36 items; SIP = Sickness Impact Profile; TOP = Trauma Outcome Profile; WeeFIM = Pediatric version of the FIM; WODASII = World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule version II; WHOQOL-BREF = short version of the World Health Organization Quality of life.