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Table 3 Odds ratiosa and 95% confidence intervals for associations between physician visits or hospitalizations for intestinal infectious diseases and socio-demographic, temporal, and environmental variables.

From: Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: A cohort study

  Physician Visits Hospitalizations
   Wald 95%
Confidence
Limits
  Wald 95%
Confidence
Limits
Variable & Category Odds
Ratio
Lower Upper Odds
Ratio
Lower Upper
Sex       
   Female 1.08 1.03 1.13 1.18 0.88 1.58
   Male 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Age
   < 1 5.22 4.26 6.40 2.75 0.60 12.6
   1 - 4 4.83 4.32 5.39 6.54 3.64 11.8
   5 - 9 1.81 1.61 2.04 1.33 0.69 2.58
   10 - 19 0.80 0.71 0.90 0.54 0.27 1.07
   20 - 29 1.31 1.17 1.47 0.26 0.11 0.64
   30 - 39 0.96 0.86 1.08 0.14 0.05 0.40
   40 - 49 0.69 0.61 0.78 0.22 0.09 0.51
   50 - 59 0.63 0.55 0.72 0.20 0.07 0.56
   60 - 69 0.69 0.59 0.80 0.62 0.27 1.42
   ≥ 70 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Season
   Spring 1.08 1.01 1.15 1.45 1.01 2.07
   Summer 0.89 0.83 0.95 0.55 0.35 0.87
   Fall 0.77 0.72 0.83 0.50 0.31 0.81
   Winter 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Duration of Residence in the Township
   < 1 year 1.16 1.03 1.30 1.04 0.46 2.35
   1 - 2 years 0.98 0.88 1.09 0.89 0.40 1.95
   2 - 3 years 0.80 0.70 0.91 0.73 0.30 1.78
   3 - 6 years 0.73 0.64 0.82 0.62 0.26 1.49
   ≥ 6 years 0.69 0.60 0.80 0.55 0.20 1.57
   Unknown 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Household income quintile of the neighborhood
   Low 1.18 1.03 1.34 1.17 0.58 2.37
   Medium Low 1.19 1.07 1.32 0.91 0.49 1.69
   Medium 1.06 0.98 1.15 0.85 0.51 1.42
   Medium High 1.02 0.95 1.09 0.89 0.57 1.39
   High 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Drinking Water Disinfection
   Chlorination 0.92 0.85 1.00 0.89 0.53 1.48
   None 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Water System or Subsystem
   Municipal A: mixed surface (66-96%) & well 1.57 1.39 1.78 0.54 0.24 1.20
   Municipal B: mixed surface (66-96%) & well 1.45 1.28 1.64 0.66 0.29 1.52
   Municipal C: mixed surface (12-63%) & well 1.01 0.90 1.12 0.71 0.36 1.40
   Municipal D: well, with surface water added in emergencies & summer 1.00 0.87 1.15 0.83 0.37 1.87
   Municipal E: well, with surface water added in emergencies & summer 0.89 0.69 1.15 1.35 0.45 4.03
   Municipal F: well, large systems 0.96 0.85 1.08 0.93 0.45 1.94
   Municipal G: well, small systems 0.51 0.27 0.99 0 0 > 999
   Community well 1.04 0.83 1.30 0.34 0.05 2.49
   Private well 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Sewage Disposal
   Municipal sewer 1.26 1.14 1.38 1.42 0.77 2.62
   Private sewage system 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Land Use
   Agricultural 1.06 0.95 1.19 0.95 0.51 1.80
   Residential 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
  1. a Based on unconditional logistic regression, also adjusted for calendar year. Statistically significant odds ratios in bold.
  2. - Reference value, no confidence limits calculated.
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