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Table 2 Association between factors of the mother, the household and the health system and neonatal mortality (bivariate analysis) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.

From: Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

  Cases
(n)
Referents
(n)
Crude odds ratio Confidence interval (95%)
Socioeconomic determinants     
Maternal ethnicity     
   Kinh 371 68 Ref  
   Minority 228 115 2.75 1.94 - 3.91
Maternal education     
   Tertiary school or higher 40 207 Ref  
   Secondary school 39 151 1.33 0.82 - 2.18
   Primary school 37 134 1.43 0.87 - 2.35
   No schooling 65 106 3.17 1.97 - 5.09
Household economy     
   5th quintile (rich) 12 120 Ref  
   4th quintile 22 120 1.83 0.86 - 3.89
   3rd quintile 23 113 2.04 0.96 - 4.31
   2nd quintile 60 124 4.84 2.41 - 9.71
   1st quintile (poor) 66 122 5.41 2.69 - 10.9
Proximate determinants     
Distance to closest health facility     
   1st quintile (<401 m) 30 119 Ref  
   2nd quintile (402 - 740 m) 26 120 1.28 0.68 - 2.44
   3rd quintile (741 - 1256 m) 32 119 1.60 0.86 - 2.97
   4th quintile (1257 - 2232 m) 48 120 2.38 1.32 - 4.29
   5th quintile (>2233 m) 54 119 2.70 1.50 - 4.85
   Close (1st to 3rd quintile) 78 358 Ref  
   Remote (4th to 5th quintile) 102 239 1.96 1.39 - 2.75
Antenatal care visits     
   Yes 113 507 Ref  
   No 70 91 3.45 2.35 - 5.07
Place of delivery     
   Regional hospital 37 152 Ref  
   District hospital 75 277 1.11 0.72 - 1.73
   CHC 13 90 0.59 0.29 - 1.18
   Home 58 80 2.98 1.79 - 4.96
   Facility delivery 80 519 Ref  
   Home delivery 58 125 3.01 2.02 - 4.49