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Table 4 Factors associated with dental visit among mothers by simple logistic regression analysis

From: Factors associated with dental visit and barriers to utilisation of oral health care services in a sample of antenatal mothers in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

Variables Crude OR 95% CI LR χ2(df)a p valuea
Age (years)     
   ≤35 1.00 -- 0.593 (1) 0.444
   >35 1.40 0.59-3.32   
Ethnic group     
   Malay 1.00 -- 0.891 (1) 0.345
   Others 0.39 0.05-3.37   
Highest educational level     
   Secondary 1.00 -- 4.078 (2) 0.130
   Post-secondary/Diploma 0.08 0.14-1.12 3.010 (1)b 0.083b
   Tertiary 0.84 0.44-2.76 0.041 (1)b 0.839b
Household income (Malaysian Ringgit)     
   <3000 1.00 -- 0.339 (2) 0.844
   3001-5000 1.15 0.44-3.00 0.080 (1)b 0.778b
   >5000 0.73 0.19-2.89 0.199 (1)b 0.656b
Employment status     
   No 1.00 -- 0.007 (1) 0.936
   Yes 1.03 0.46-2.35   
Period of gestation (weeks)     
   28-32 1.00 -- 0.437 (2) 0.804
   33-37 0.85 0.35-2.07 0.133 (1)b 0.715b
   >37 1.20 0.44-3.27 0.127 (1)b 0.721b
Gravida status     
   Primigravida 1.00 -- 0.003 (1) 0.954
   Multigravida 0.98 0.41-2.32   
Oral health status     
   Fair 1.00 -- 0.701 (1) 0.400
   Very good/good 0.70 0.31-1.60   
Self-reported oral health problem     
   None 1.00 -- 2.390 (2) 0.303
   One problem 1.58 0.61-4.09 0.873 (1)b 0.350b
   Two or more problems 2.10 0.80-5.46 2.289 (1)b 0.130b
Oral health education received before the current pregnancy     
   No 1.00 -- 14.334 (1) <0.001
   Yes 5.03 2.15-11.76   
Aware of relationship between maternal oral health and pregnancy outcomes     
   No 1.00 -- 11.271 (1) 0.002
   Yes 4.57 1.73-12.05   
Aware of free dental services in government clinics     
   No 1.00 -- 3.150 (1) 0.082
   Yes 2.08 0.91-4.73   
Distance to nearest dental clinic (km)     
   ≤5 1.00 -- 1.749 (1) 0.184
   >5 1.71 0.77-3.80   
Accessibility to the nearest dental clinic     
   Difficult 1.00 -- 0.104 (2) 0.950
   Easy 1.22 0.23-6.44 0.054 (1)b 0.816b
   Very easy 1.33 0.22-8.10 0.098 (1)b 0.755b
  1. a Likelihood Ratio (LR) test
  2. b Wald test
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