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Table 4 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for diabetes and combined diabetes and IFG in men according to the categories of drinking frequency and types of beverage

From: Associations of alcohol consumption with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glycemia among middle-aged and elderly Chinese

   Participants (n) Diabetes Combined diabetes and IFG
Drinking frequency     
   Abstainers   688 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
   < 1 day/wk   165 1.17 (0.71,1.92) 1.45 (0.99,2.13)
   1-4 day/wk   164 1.22 (0.73,2.05) 1.27 (0.86,1.88)
   5-7 day/wk 0.1-19.9 g/d 115 1.24 (0.70,2.21) 1.59 (1.02,2.48)
  20-39.9 g/d 106 0.72 (0.36,1.46) 0.61 (0.37,0.98)
  ≥ 40.0 g/d 197 1.72 (1.03,2.87) 1.50 (1.02,2.18)
Beverage type     
   Abstainers   688 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
   Liquor drinkers     
  0.1-19.9 g/d 166 1.60 (0.99,2.61) 1.85 (1.24,2.77)
  20-39.9 g/d 80 0.95 (0.44,2.03) 0.92 (0.55,1.56)
  ≥ 40.0 g/d 165 1.52 (0.86,2.68) 1.49 (1.00,2.23)
  Total 411 1.43 (0.96,2.12) 1.47 (1.09,1.98)
   Non-liquor drinkers     
  0.1-19.9 g/d 220 1.07 (0.68,1.70) 1.11 (0.78,1.56)
  20-39.9 g/d 62 0.40 (0.12,1.34) 0.68 (0.36,1.25)
  ≥ 40.0 g/d 54 1.92 (0.87,4.23) 1.64 (0.88, 3.03)
  Total 336 1.05 (0.70,1.58) 1.08 (0.80,1.46)
  1. Data were adjusted for age, geographic location (Beijing/Shanghai), residential region (urban/rural), educational level, smoking, physical activity, family income, family history of CVD or diabetes, diet (total energy intake without alcohol, energy adjusted dietary fiber and fat intake), BMI, inflammatory markers (log-transformed CRP, IL-6 and ferritin), adipokines (RBP4, log-transformed adiponectin and PAI-1).