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Table 2 Adjusted means of metabolic traits and markers of inflammation and adipokines according to alcohol consumption categories

From: Associations of alcohol consumption with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glycemia among middle-aged and elderly Chinese

  Men    Women   
Biomarkers Abstainers 0.1-19.9 g/d 20.0-39.9 g/d ≥40.0 g/d P for
linear
trend *
P for
quadratic
trend†
Abstainers > 0.1 g/d P for
linear
trend *
P for
quadratic
trend†
Fasting glucose, mmol/l 5.49 (0.05) 5.58 (0.06) 5.47 (0.09) 5.68(0.08)§ 0.10 0.93 5.45 (0.07) 5.48 (0.09) 0.40 0.66
Insulin, μU/ml 12.86 (0.34) 12.45 (0.42) 10.88 (0.52)§ 11.38 (0.48)§ 0.02 0.06 15.13 (0.55) 14.83 (0.71) 0.33 0.54
A1C, % 5.80 (0.04) 5.74 (0.04) 5.68 (0.06) 5.74 (0.06) 0.62 0.08 5.80 (0.05) 5.76 (0.07) 0.59 0.46
HOMA-S, % 67.9 (1.8) 70.2 (2.4) 80.5 (3.9)‡ 76.3 (3.2)§ 0.27 0.05 58.5 (2.1) 59.3 (2.8) 0.41 0.62
HOMA-B, % 111.9 (2.3) 103.7 (2.9)§ 99.5 (4.1)§ 97.3 (3.6)‡ 0.008 0.14 124.5 (3.5) 121.8 (4.6) 0.16 0.37
HDL, mmol/l 1.17 (0.02) 1.20(0.02) 1.30(0.03)‡ 1.36(0.02)‡ < 0.0001 0.03 1.30 (0.02) 1.33 (0.03) 0.99 0.88
LDL, mmol/l 3.12 (0.04) 3.05 (0.05) 3.05 (0.08) 2.92 (0.07)§ 0.02 0.17 3.24 (0.07) 3.30 (0.10) 0.17 0.49
Triglyceride, mmol/l 1.15 (0.03) 1.17 (0.04) 1.09 (0.06) 1.05 (0.05) 0.22 0.64 1.26 (0.05) 1.18 (0.07) 0.77 0.65
CRP, mg/l 0.76 (0.04) 0.71 (0.05) 0.70 (0.07) 0.66 (0.06) 0.55 0.80 0.69 (0.05) 0.61 (0.06) 0.17 0.14
IL-6, pg/ml 1.09 (0.04) 0.97 (0.05) 1.16 (0.08) 1.05 (0.07) 0.43 0.50 1.02 (0.06) 0.95 (0.07) 0.46 0.58
Ferritin, μg/ml 152.5 (4.6) 156.7 (5.9) 165.9 (9.3) 170.9 (8.3)§ 0.002 0.25 106.9 (4.5) 107.5 (6.1) 0.53 0.61
RBP4, ng/ml 40.4 (0.6) 44.1 (0.7)‡ 44.4 (1.1)‡ 46.4 (0.9)‡ < 0.0001 < 0.0001 39.0 (0.8) 41.5 (1.1)‡ 0.005 0.01
Adiponectin, μg/ml 12.2 (0.5) 12.4 (0.6) 12.4 (0.9) 11.5 (0.7) 0.28 0.63 13.2 (0.7) 13.7 (1.0) 0.48 0.66
PAI-1, ng/ml 2.73 (0.42) 4.20 (0.81) 1.77 (0.51) 4.67 (1.16) 0.32 0.54 5.39 (1.16) 6.26 (1.86) 0.17 0.06
  1. Data are means (SE) or geometric means (SE) adjusted for age, geographic location (north/south), residential region (urban/rural), educational level, smoking, physical activity, family income, family history of CVD or diabetes, BMI and diet (total energy intake without alcohol, energy adjusted dietary fiber and fat intake). Participants who were previously diagnosed diabetes or on glucose-lowering therapy (men: n = 132; women: n = 143) were excluded from the analyses for diabetes-associated traits, and those who were on oral anti-hyperlipidemia (men: n = 91; women: n = 135) were excluded from the analyses for lipid profiles.
  2. * P values are from analyses the model alcohol consumption (g/d) as linear terms.
  3. P values are from analyses the model alcohol consumption (g/d) as quadratic terms.
  4. P < 0.001 compared with abstainers
  5. §P < 0.05 compared with abstainers