Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to alcohol consumption categories

From: Associations of alcohol consumption with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glycemia among middle-aged and elderly Chinese

  Men Women
  Abstainers 0.1-19.9 g/d 20.0-39.9 g/d ≥40.0 g/d P value Abstainers ≥0.1 g/d P value
Participants, n (%) 688(47.9) 386(26.9) 142(9.9) 219(15.3)   1635(90.2) 177(9.8)  
Age, y 59.4 (6.0) 58.1 (5.9) 58.1 (5.7) 58.0 (5.8) 0.60 58.5 (6.06) 58.0 (6.14) 0.28
BMI, kg/m2 24.0 (3.6) 24.6 (3.0) 24.0 (3.3) 23.6 (3.1) 0.0029 24.7 (3.7) 25.3 (3.9) 0.05
Waistline, cm 85.0 (11.1) 87.2 (9.3) 85.6 (10.3) 84.7 (10.1) 0.01 82.1 (10.4) 83.0 (10.2) 0.31
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 141.2 (23.0) 142.1 (22.8) 143.2 (23.0) 146.2 (23.4) 0.04 143.6 (25.5) 140.7 (24.8) 0.15
Alcohol intake, g/d NA 5.2 (2.1,10.3) 29.4 (23.9,31.8) 68.4 (51.6,87.7) < 0.0001 NA 1.9(0.9,6.9) NA
Alcohol from liquor, g/d NA 3.0 (0.9,5.3) 15.4(11.7,19.1) 59.8 (56.8, 62.8) < 0.0001 NA 2.6 (2.3,3.6) NA
Alcohol from beer, g/d NA 2.4 (0.3,4.5) 9.0 (5.6,12.4) 19.1 (16.4,21.8) < 0.0001 NA 3.4 (2.9,3.8) NA
Alcohol from wine, g/d NA 1.4 (3.4) 4.4 (9.2) 6.0 (15.5) NA 1.9 (10.0) 1.3 (0.8,1.7) NA
Drinking frequency, %      < 0.0001    NA
< 1 day/wk NA 40.7 4.2 0.9   NA 53.1  
1-4 day/wk NA 29.5 21.1 9.1   NA 22.6  
5-7 day/wk NA 29.8 74.7 90.0   NA 24.3  
Drinking pattern, %      < 0.0001    NA
Liquor drinkers NA 43.0 56.3 75.3   NA 22.6  
Non-liquor drinkers NA 57.0 43.7 24.7   NA 77.4  
North residence, % 38.8 66.8 56.3 55.7 < 0.0001 45.9 78.0 < 0.0001
Rural, % 51.7 40.2 52.8 67.1 < 0.0001 51.0 34.5 < 0.0001
Education >9 years, % 29.5 36.0 24.7 15.5 < 0.0001 18.4 20.9 0.41
High physical activity level, % 49.7 56.5 66.2 65.3 < 0.0001 47.0 46.3 0.67
Family income, %      < 0.0001    0.0002
< 20,000 rmb/y 30.3 21.5 26.8 38.6   27.7 16.4  
20,000-39,999 rmb/y 58.4 61.4 62.7 54.5   61.4 64.4  
≥40,000 rmb/y 11.3 17.1 10.5 6.8   10.9 19.2  
Current smoker, % 44.6 56.2 69.0 81.7 < 0.0001 4.3 15.8 < 0.0001
Family history of CVD or diabetes, % 28.8 40.4 23.2 25.1 < 0.0001 30.8 40.7 0.0075
Nutrients *         
Energy, kcal/day 2553 (855) 2622 (833) 2856 (796) 3297 (1018) < 0.0001 2018 (566) 2212 (655) < 0.0001
Energy without alcohol, kcal/day 2553(855) 2576(829) 2663(798) 2714(892) 0.07 2018(566) 2158(647) < 0.0001
Fat, g/day 74.4 (25.7) 82.0 (25.9) 83.1 (27.0) 84.1(27.8) < 0.0001 66.8 (19.2) 74.5 (17.9) < 0.0001
Protein, g/day 81.5 (18.2) 88.0 (18.2) 87.8 (20.4) 86.4 (19.9) < 0.0001 65.0 (14.2) 70.5 (12.7) < 0.0001
Carbohydrate, g/day 413.2 (66.0) 392.4 (65.6) 389.7 (70.4) 389.0 (70.1) < 0.0001 305.0 (48.2) 284.8 (42.8) < 0.0001
Fiber, g/day 13.9 (5.8) 16.2 (6.8) 14.9 (5.3) 13.8 (5.6) < 0.0001 12.6 (4.9) 14.8 (5.5) < 0.0001
  1. NA: Not applicable.
  2. Data are means (SD) or median (inter-quartile range) where appropriate.
  3. * All the nutrients are energy adjusted using residual regression method.