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Table 2 Trends in prevalence (%) of heavy and frequent drinking and samogon consumption by age group, area and education

From: Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

   1994 1995 1996 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Males           
Frequent, heavy spirit cons.*          
Education Incompl 2ry 17.9 (16.9-18.8) 16.5 (15.4-17.5) 16.1 (15.3-17.0) 11.0 (10.2-11.8) 14.6 (13.5-15.7) 18.0 (16.8-19.2) 20.8 (19.7-21.8) 15.3 (14.3-16.3) 17.4 (16.3-18.6)
  Compl. 2ry 14.1 (13.1-15.0) 14.6 (13.5-15.6) 14.7 (13.5-15.9) 10.9 (9.8-11.9) 14.3 (13.1-15.5) 16.3 (15.3-17.4) 15.4 (14.3-16.5) 14.5 (13.4-15.5) 13.6 (12.6-14.5)
  Higher 12.0 (11-13.1) 10.9 (9.8-12) 13.1 (11.9-14.3) 9.2 (7.9-10.4) 11.0 (9.9-12.1) 13.6 (12.3-15.0) 13.6 (12.2-15.0) 13.8 (12.4-15.3) 10.9 (9.9-11.9)
Area Urban 13.3 (12.6-13.9) 13.3 (12.7-14.0) 14.6 (14.0-15.3) 9.9 (9.4-10.5) 13.0 (12.3-13.7) 17.0 (16.2-17.7) 17.5 (16.7-18.3) 14.6 (13.8-15.3) 13.5 (12.8-14.2)
  Rural 13.8 (12.8-14.8) 14.5 (13.5-15.5) 13.2 (12.3-14.1) 8.7 (7.9-9.5) 10.4 (9.6-11.3) 11.4 (10.5-12.3) 12.2 (11.4-13.0) 12.9 (11.9-13.9) 14.3 (13.2-15.4)
  Mosc/St Pete 16.8 (14.6-18.9) 20.1 (17.6-22.7) 20.1 (17.4-22.8) 16.7 (14.0-19.5) 23.4 (19.6-27.2) 17.8 (15.4-20.3) 13.3 (11.2-15.3) 13.9 (11.5-16.3) 11.2 (9.2-13.3)
Age band 18-39 12.7 (11.9-13.5) 14.4 (13.5-15.3) 13.7 (12.8-14.6) 9.6 (8.8-10.5) 12.5 (11.5-13.5) 17.8 (16.6-19.0) 17.4 (16.0-18.8) 14.0 (12.8-15.2) 14.5 (13.6-15.5)
  40-59 18.5 (17.5-19.4) 16.2 (15.2-17.1) 18.5 (17.4-19.6) 13.3 (12.4-14.1) 14.0 (12.9-15.2) 16.7 (15.5-17.9) 16.2 (15.2-17.2) 18.2 (17.0-19.4) 15.8 (14.8-16.9)
  60 and over 11.4 (10.3-12.5) 12.2 (11.0-13.4) 11.3 (9.8-12.8) 6.5 (5.4-7.5) 12.4 (11.2-13.7) 11.6 (10.5-12.7) 13.6 (12.3-15.0) 11.8 (10.3-13.2) 11.7 (10.0-13.5)
Samogon           
Education Incompl 2ry 7.8 (7.0-8.5) 8.4 (7.6-9.2) 8.4 (7.5-9.2) 15.5 (14.3-16.7) 23.9 (22.5-25.3) 22.2 (20.8-23.6) 20.5 (18.8-22.2) 18 (16.6-19.5) 19 (17.3-20.7)
  Compl. 2ry 6.7 (5.8-7.6) 4.6 (3.9-5.3) 6.5 (5.5-7.4) 12.1 (11.0-13.3) 15.3 (13.7-16.8) 16.7 (15.1-18.4) 15.9 (14.5-17.4) 13.2 (11.7-14.7) 11.8 (10.6-13.0)
  Higher 2.9 (2.4-3.5) 2.6 (1.8-3.4) 3.4 (2.7-4.1) 7.7 (6.4-9.1) 10.3 (8.7-12) 9.3 (7.6-10.9) 9.4 (7.5-11.4) 8.7 (7.0-10.4) 6.0 (4.6-7.5)
Area Urban 4.5 (4.1-4.8) 3.8 (3.5-4.2) 5.0 (4.6-5.3) 9.8 (9.2-10.3) 13.6 (12.9-14.3) 14.1 (13.5-14.8) 14.0 (13.3-14.6) 11.4 (10.8-12) 10.3 (9.7-10.9)
  Rural 10.9 (10.0-11.7) 10.5 (9.6-11.3) 10.7 (9.9-11.6) 18.9 (17.8-20.0) 26.5 (25.2-27.7) 27.9 (26.6-29.2) 24.4 (23.2-25.6) 22.5 (21.4-23.7) 18.3 (17.3-19.4)
  Mosc/St Pete 1.4 (0.8-2.1) 0.5 (0.0-0.9) 0.8 (0.3-1.3) 2.6 (1.4-3.7) 2.9 (1.7-4.2) 2.3 (1.4-3.3) 2.4 (1.5-3.4) 2.3 (1.0-3.5) 2.8 (1.6-4.0)
Age band 18-39 4.9 (4.3-5.4) 4.6 (4-5.3) 5.0 (4.4-5.7) 10.9 (10.0-11.8) 16.4 (14.9-17.9) 14.8 (13.4-16.1) 13.6 (12.0-15.1) 11.8 (10.3-13.2) 9.9 (8.5-11.2)
  40-59 7.1 (6.3-8.0) 6.1 (5.3-6.9) 7.2 (6.4-8.1) 11.1 (9.8-12.4) 16.8 (15.2-18.3) 16 (14.5-17.5) 15.3 (13.7-16.8) 15 (13.5-16.5) 12.7 (11.3-14)
  60 and over 8.0 (6.8-9.1) 6.2 (5.0-7.4) 7.7 (6.4-9.0) 12.3 (10.8-13.8) 18.2 (16.2-20.1) 20.7 (18.6-22.8) 19.1 (17.1-21.1) 16.7 (14.6-18.7) 16.1 (14.0-18.2)
Female           
Frequent, heavy spirit cons.*          
Education Incompl 2ry 1.8 (1.6-1.9) 2.3 (2.1-2.5) 2.1 (1.9-2.3) 1.2 (1.0-1.3) 1.6 (1.4-1.7) 2.7 (2.5-2.9) 3.5 (3.2-3.9) 1.9 (1.7-2.1) 2.9 (2.7-3.2)
  Compl. 2ry 1.3 (1.0-1.6) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.5 (1.1-1.9) 0.7 (0.5-1.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.6 (1.2-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.4) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)
  Higher 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.5 (1.3-1.7) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 0.9 (0.8-1.1)
Area Urban 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 1.3 (1.2-1.4) 1.8 (1.7-2.0) 1.3 (1.1-1.4) 1.3 (1.2-1.5)
  Rural 0.6 (0.5-0.7) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.7 (0.6-0.8) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 1.4 (1.2-1.5) 1.5 (1.3-1.6) 1.5 (1.3-1.6)
  Mosc/St Pete 2.1 (1.7-2.5) 3.0 (2.4-3.7) 1.8 (1.3-2.3) 1.9 (1.3-2.4) 0.4 (0.2-0.7) 1.7 (1.2-2.2) 1.9 (1.4-2.4) 1.3 (0.8-1.8) 1.2 (0.8-1.5)
Age band 18-39 1.4 (1.1-1.6) 1.5 (1.2-1.8) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.5 (1.2-1.8) 2.5 (2.0-2.9) 3.3 (2.8-3.8) 2.0 (1.7-2.4) 1.8 (1.4-2.2)
  40-59 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 1.7 (1.4-2.0) 1.3 (1.1-1.4) 0.7 (0.5-0.8) 1.2 (1.0-1.5) 1.6 (1.4-1.8) 1.4 (1.1-1.6) 1.6 (1.4-1.9) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)
  60 and over 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.6 (0.5-0.7) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.7 (0.6-0.7) 0.2 (0.2-0.3) 0.5 (0.5-0.6) 0.5 (0.4-0.5) 0.3 (0.2-0.3) 0.8 (0.7-0.9)
Samogon           
Education Incompl 2ry 1.7 (1.6-1.9) 1.4 (1.3-1.6) 2.1 (1.9-2.3) 4.1 (3.8-4.3) 7.8 (7.4-8.2) 8.1 (7.7-8.5) 7.2 (6.7-7.6) 5.9 (5.5-6.3) 5.0 (4.7-5.3)
  Compl. 2ry 1.3 (0.9-1.8) 0.7 (0.5-0.8) 1.2 (0.9-1.4) 3.7 (3.2-4.2) 4.7 (4.0-5.3) 4.9 (4.1-5.7) 4.4 (3.6-5.1) 2.8 (2.2-3.4) 2.9 (2.3-3.5)
  Higher 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) 2.2 (1.8-2.6) 3.3 (2.8-3.7) 3.3 (2.9-3.7) 3.1 (2.6-3.6) 2.2 (1.8-2.6) 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Area Urban 0.9 (0.8-0.9) 0.7 (0.7-0.8) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 2.5 (2.4-2.6) 4.2 (4.0-4.4) 4.3 (4.1-4.5) 4.1 (3.9-4.3) 2.8 (2.6-3.0) 2.2 (2.0-2.3)
  Rural 1.5 (1.4-1.7) 1.6 (1.4-1.7) 1.8 (1.6-2.0) 6.5 (6.2-6.9) 7.4 (7.0-7.7) 8.2 (7.8-8.6) 7.5 (7.2-7.9) 5.4 (5.0-5.7) 5.6 (5.2-6.0)
  Mosc/St Pete 0.2 (0.1-0.3) 0 0 1.4 (0.8-1.9) 0.7 (0.4-1.1) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 0.9 (0.5-1.3) 0
Age band 18-39 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 3.6 (3.0-4.1) 5.1 (4.3-5.9) 5.0 (4.3-5.8) 4.8 (3.9-5.7) 3.5 (2.9-4.1) 2.6 (2.0-3.1)
  40-59 1.4 (1.2-1.6) 0.9 (0.7-1.1) 1.4 (1.2-1.6) 4.1 (3.6-4.5) 6.2 (5.6-6.8) 6.0 (5.4-6.7) 4.9 (4.2-5.5) 2.9 (2.5-3.3) 3.6 (3.1-4.2)
  60 and over 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 2.7 (2.5-2.9) 3.2 (3.0-3.4) 3.6 (3.4-3.8) 4.3 (4.0-4.5) 3.3 (3.1-3.6) 2.6 (2.4-2.8)