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Table 2 Categories of claimants reported by physicians which form the basis for stereotypes and their characteristics

From: Stereotyping of medical disability claimants' communication behaviour by physicians: towards more focused education for social insurance physicians

Category Characteristics
Active coping with disabilities - Remain active
- Problem-solving ability
- Take responsibility
- Take control of their lives
- Have adequate introspection
- Search for opportunities to continue working or return to work
- Think in possibilities
- Justify the claims
- Possible serious disabilities
Motivated behaviour during interview - Open
- Honest
- Straightforward
- Willing to co-operate
- Claim the disabilities they really have
- Accept physician's conclusions
Clear physical diagnosis - Unambiguous physical disability
- Easily understandable disability
Common claimant with 'average' behaviour - "Just normal claimants"
- Rather relaxed
- Say things the way they are
Anxiousness - Tense before interview
- Tense during interview
- Lack self-confidence
- Insecure
- Dependent
- Uncommunicative
Passive coping with disabilities - Negative or passive attitude
- Lack motivation
- External locus of control with regard to coping with their disabilities and continuing work or returning to work
- See problems everywhere
- Focus on what they can not do
- Stress the negative
- Suffer from their disabilities
- Do not want to work
- Feel that they are a victim
- Possibly the result of a different cultural background
Communication difficulties (practical limitations) - Hearing problems
- Difficulties with speaking and understanding Dutch
- Low level of intelligence
- Intellectual disabilities
Mental or unclear diagnosis - Psychiatric disorders
- Personality disorders
- Non-specific disorders
- Disorders that are difficult to objectify and have an unclear cause (e.g. somatisation, chronic fatigue)
- Claim many different disabilities and medical complaints
- Inconsistent disabilities
- Physical claim, but mental disabilities
Unmotivated behaviour during interview - Uncommunicative
- Elusive
- Silent
- Passive and uninformed
- Dependent
- Claim many disabilities
- Unwilling to co-operate
- Do not say anything spontaneously
Hostile - Look for confrontations
- Intimidating
- Threatening
- Aggressive (verbally or physically)
- Put physician in inferior position
- Dominate interview (verbally or physically)
- Might "explode" when disagreeing
Deceitful/unreliable - Deliberately deceitful
- Unreliable
- Stubborn
- Invent disabilities
- Have a hidden agenda
- Manipulate
- Give contradictory and inconsistent information
- Might also be "too nice"
Excessive and unnecessary information - Give an overload of information
- Keep talking (physician does not get a chance to intervene)
- Autonomous
- Elaborate
- Pay a lot of attention to relevant as well as irrelevant details
- Immediately place all their points on the agenda
- Keep changing the subject
- Need structure
- May exaggerate disability claim in order to justify it