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Table 2 Description of studies by lifestyle components and modality of each intervention

From: Reduction of diabetes risk in routine clinical practice: are physical activity and nutrition interventions feasible and are the outcomes from reference trials replicable? A systematic review and meta-analysis

  Physical activity program* Dietary modif-ication* Face-to-face
Counselling
Phone couns-elling Outcome assessment Duration
(months)
Control
Intervention
Program
delivered
by
Outcomes assessed by
Author, year [reference] Structured Unstructured   No. Individual sessions No. Group sessions No. Objective Self-report Inter-vention Follow-up    
Barclay,
2008 [87]
  Y Y - 6 - Y Y 1 6 Usual management from GP or nurse Nutritional scientist, psychologist, aerobics instructor Nutritionist, research assistant
Greaves,
2008 [86]
  Y Y 11   2 Y Y 6 6 Usual care + information only Health promotion counsellor Researcher
Bo,
2007 [48]
  Y Y 1 4 - Y Y 12 12 Usual care + general verbal information GPs, endocrinolog-ists, nutritionists Physician
Kosaka,
2005 [49]
  Y Y 1 16 - Y Y 12 48 Verbal lifestyle advice every 6 months NR NR
Torgerson,
2004 [80]
  Y Y 54 - - Y Y 48 48 Same lifestyle advice minus medication Dieticians Doctors & other PHC staff
Dyson,
1997 [50]
Y   Y 5 - - Y   12 12 Once only, written basic lifestyle advice Dietician, fitness instructor, physician NR
Whittemore,
2009 [78]
Y   Y 6 - 5 Y Y 6 6 20-30 minutes with nurse & 45 minutes with nutritionist Nurses Nurses
McTigue,
2009 [84]
  Y Y   12     12 12 No intervention Nurses Physicians
Eriksson,
1991 [79]
Y   Y 7 - - Y - 12 60 No specific diabetes prevention intervention or no intervention Dietician, Nurse, Physiotherapist Doctor
Pagoto,
2008 [14]
Y   Y   16   Y   4 4 No control group Dieticians, psychologists, exercise physiologists Physicians
Laatikainen,
2007 [83]
Y   Y   6 Y Y   8 12 No control group Dieticians, Nurses, Physiotherapist Other PHC
Absetz,
2005,
2009 [82]
Y   Y   6    Y 8 12 No control group Nurse, dietician, Physiotherapist Doctor, Nurse
  1. Y = Yes, reported NR = not reported GPs = general practitioners
  2. * Structured = Participants received standard set of sessions with instructions on specific dietary and/or physical activity requirements and goals;
  3. Unstructured = participants were given generic instructions on improved lifestyle or had flexibility to apply them and no specific goal was set apart from improved diet or physical activity in relation to baseline.