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Table 1 Classification of eligible studies by design, target population, outcomes and quality score (1990-2009)

From: Reduction of diabetes risk in routine clinical practice: are physical activity and nutrition interventions feasible and are the outcomes from reference trials replicable? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, reference # Study Design Total sample size Target age group Country & Setting of recruitment Inclusion criteria: Normal or abnormal GT Loss to follow-up rate % Outcome assessment:
Measured OR
self-reported
Study Quality score1
*Barclay, 2008 [87] RCT 37 50-85 UK: Single general practice IGT or IFG 19% Measured weight, WC, FPG, lipids, self-reported exercise, 4-day food diary 7
Greaves, 2008 [86] RCT 141 18+ UK: 2 GP surgeries NGT or IGT 18% Measured weight, WC and self-reported physical activity 7
*Bo, 2007 [48] RCT 375 45-64 Italy: Family physician GPs Metabolic Syndrome 11% Self-reported FFQ & exercise; Measured FPG, insulin, weight, WC, lipids, CRP 8
*Kosaka, 2005 [49] RCT 458 Adult males 30+ Japan: Hospital outpatient Clinic IGT 15.9% Measured FPG, OGTT, HbA1c, measured weight, lipids 7
Torgerson, 2004 [80] RCT 3,304 30-60 Sweden: Medical
centres
NGT & IGT 57% overall; 48% on medication & 66% on placebo Measured weight, WC,
FPG, lipids, serum insulin, fibrinogen
7
*Dyson, 1997 [50] RCT 227 40-60 UK, France: 5 Hospitals IFG 11% FPG, OGTT, HbA1c, lipids, measured weight, max O2 uptake, self-reported 3-day food record & physical activity log 7
Whittemore, 2009 [78] CLU 58 21+ USA: Primary care practices NGT & IGT 12% Self-reported exercise and nutrition
Measured weight, WC, insulin resistance, lipids
7
McTigue, 2009 [84] BAC 166 20-79 USA: Primary care practices Obese, NGT or diabetic 7% Measured weight 5
Eriksson, 1991 [79] BAC 181 47-49 Sweden: Borderline diabetes clinic NGT & IGT 22.8% Self-reported exercise, max O2 uptake, FPG, OGTT, lipids, measured weight, skinfold, mortality 7
Pagoto, 2008 [14] B-A 118 Middle age USA: Academic medical center Metabolic syndrome, NGT or diabetic 17% Measured weight, BP, 3
Laatikainen, 2007 [83] B-A 311 40-75 Australia: General practices NGT & IGT 23.8% Self-reported FFQ, SF-36, K10; Measured FPG, 2 hr PG, WC, weight, lipids 7
Absetz, 2005 & 2009 [77, 82] B-A 352 50-65 Finland: Primary health care centres NGT & IGT 9.4% Self-reported 3-day food diary, physical activity,
Measured weight, WC, FPG, lipids
7
  1. BA = before-after; BAC = Before-after with a control group; BP = Blood pressure; CLU = Cluster-randomised trial; FFQ = Food frequency questionnaire; FPG = Fasting plasma glucose; IGT = Impaired glucose tolerance; NGT = Normal glucose tolerance; PA = Physical activity; OGTT = Oral glucose tolerance test; RCT = Randomised controlled trial; WC = Waist circumference.
  2. *Study used for meta-analyses
  3. 1 Higher quality score = higher study quality