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Table 4 Prospective impact of psychosocial characteristics and previous back pain at baseline on sickness absence days.

From: Emotional support predicts more sickness absence and poorer self assessed work ability: a two-year prospective cohort study

Characteristic Age and sex adjusted
(Model I)
Adjusted for the final model
(Model III)
  n RR 95% CI n RR 95% CI
Occupation (SES)       
   Non-manual 184 1 [ref] . . . .
   Manual 112 1.43 0.98-2.07 . . .
   Self-employed 40 0.32 0.12-0.89 . . .
Smoking, current 331 1.14 0.74-1.78 . . .
BMI 339 1.03 0.98-1.07 . . .
Alcohol consumption       
   Lowa 263 1 [ref] . . . .
   Mediumb 36 0.18 0.05-0.64 . . .
   Highc 25 0.80 0.37-1.71 . . .
Disease (self report diagnosis) 340 1.83 1.25-2.67 . . .
Past sickness absence 334 1.01 1.01-1.02 . . .
I Work environment       
Job strain 323 3.09 1.05-9.07 293 1.16 0.38-3.53
   Psychological demands 326 1.00 0.93-1.07 294 0.97 0.90-1.05
   Decision latitude 337 0.91 0.85-0.98 303 0.97 0.90-1.05
Social support at work 318 0.93 0.85-1.02 283 0.97 0.88-1.07
Overcommitment 329 0.99 0.95-1.04 294 0.98 0.93-1.02
II Emotional support 337 1.51 1.11-2.05 301 1.74 1.21-2.51
III Psychological resources       
1. Sense of coherence 337 0.99 0.97-1.01 302 1.01 0.99-1.04
2. Mastery 330 1.00 0.94-1.06 294 1.07 1.00-1.15
3. Self-esteem 328 0.94 0.90-0.97 293 0.98 0.94-1.02
4. Perceived control 311 1.02 0.99-1.05 280 1.05 1.02-1.09
Previous back pain 329 1.74 1.11-2.72 295 1.43 0.92-2.22
  1. The rate ratio in italics denotes significance (p < 0.05). (Result from Model II, see text). In model III rate ratios for confounders are not reported as separate regressions were run for each of the 10 psychosocial variables and previous back pain.
  2. n = number of observations used; RR = rate ratio; CI = confidence interval.
  3. aLow (< 80 g/week for women, < 110 g/week for men)
  4. bMedium (between 80-139 g/week for women, 110-169 g/week for men)
  5. cHigh (≥ 140 g/week for women, ≥ 170 g/week for men)
  6. Adjusted for age, sex; Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, SES, disease (self report of diagnosis), and past sickness absence.