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Table 3 Univariate analyses of demographic and risk behavior for incident HCV infection in the HITS cohort (n = 488)

From: Incidence of primary hepatitis C infection and risk factors for transmission in an Australian prisoner cohort

Variable Incident cases (n = 94) Uninfected subjects (n = 394) p 95% CI
   Mean age; years (SD) 28 (±7) 27 (±7) 0.08  
   Male gender; No. (%) 51 (54) 267 (68) 0.01 0.4 - 0.9
   ATSI; No. (%) 26 (28) 92 (23) 0.38 0.8 - 2.1
   Less than 10 years education; No. (%) 71 (76) 302 (77) 0.82 0.6 - 1.6
   Duration of imprisonment; weeks (SD) 28 (±39) 52 (±95) <0.001  
   Previously imprisoned; No. (%) 79 (84) 276 (70) <0.01 1.2 - 4.1
   Continuous imprisonment; No. (%) 24 (26) 216 (55) <0.001 0.2 - 0.5
Ever:     
   Mean duration of IDU; years (SD) (mean, years) 9.5 (±6.8) 8.1 (±6.0) 0.04  
   Tattoo; No. (%) 76 (81) 278 (71) 0.03 1.1 - 3.3
   Body-piercing; No. (%) 68 (72) 307 (78) 0.25 0.4 - 1.2
   Fight with blood; No. (%) 37 (39) 167 (42) 0.79 0.6 - 1.5
   Stabbed; No. (%) 24 (26) 109 (28) 0.68 0.5 - 1.5
   Shared a razor; No. (%) 12 (13) 66 (17) 0.39 0.4 - 1.5
   Haircut with laceration; No. (%) 21 (22) 85 (22) 0.87 0.6 - 1.8
   Blood contact during sport; No. (%) 12 (13) 80 (20) 0.11 0.3 - 1.1
   Needle-stick injury; No. (%) 21 (22) 68 (17) 0.28 0.8 - 2.4
   IDU in prison; No. (%) 49 (52) 147 (37) 0.01 1.1 - 2.8
   Injected by someone else; No. (%) 58 (62) 284 (72) 0.04 0.4 - 1.0
   Injected heroin; No. (%) 69 (73) 249 (63) 0.06 1.0 - 2.7
   Injected methamphetamine; No. (%) 82 (87) 341 (87) 0.86 0.5 - 2.1
   Injected methadone/buprenorphine; No. (%) 40 (43) 125 (32) 0.05 1.0 - 2.5
   Daily IDU; No. (%) 82 (87) 296 (75) 0.01 1.2 - 4.3
   Shared IDU equipment; No. (%) 63 (67) 243 (62) 0.43 0.8 - 2.0
   Drug & Alcohol counseling; No. (%) 69 (73) 303 (77) 0.42 0.5 - 1.4
3 months prior to incarceration*     
   IDU; No. (%) 58 (83) 115 (65) <0.01 1.3 - 5.1
   Daily IDU; No. (%) 50 (71) 75 (43) <0.001 1.9 - 6.1
   Shared IDU equipment; No. (%) 18 (26) 41 (23) 0.69 0.6 - 2.2
   Always bleach shared equipment, No. (%) 13 (19) 16 (9) 0.04 1.0 - 5.0
Since incarceration:     
   IDU; No. (%) 31 (33) 102 (26) 0.17 0.9 - 2.3
   Daily IDU; No. (%) 3 (3) 15 (5) 0.56 0.2 - 2.4
   Shared IDU equipment; No. (%) 27 (29) 93 (24) 0.30 0.8 - 2.2
   Always bleach shared equipment, No. (%) 20 (21) 63 (16) 0.22 0.8 - 2.5
   Recent break from IDU >6 months; No. (%) 33 (35) 208 (53) <0.01 0.3 - 0.7
   Currently on MMT; No. (%) 36 (38) 63 (16) <0.001 2.0 - 5.3
  1. * Only inmates who were not continuously in prison were included in this analysis (n = 246)