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Table 6 Proportional Burden of Disease and costs attributable to each cardiovascular risk factor potentially modifiable

From: Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

   Population-attributable Fraction% (95%CI)
Both sexes Tobacco use Overweight and Obesity High Blood pressure High cholesterol High glycemia Physical inactivity
Total AMI events (both fatal and non-fatal) 22.5 (22.2 - 22.8) 20.9 (20.4 - 21.3) 38.5 (37.9 - 39.1) 25.1 (24.4 - 25.8) 13.9 (13.2 - 14.5) 20.9 (20.6 - 21.2)
Total non-infarction events (both fatal and non-fatal) 18.5 (18.1 - 18.8) 18.6 (18.2 - 19.0) 40.9 (40.1 - 41.5) 26.2 (25.2 - 27.0) 14.8 (14.0 - 15.6) 21.6 (21.2 - 22.0)
Total stroke events (both fatal and non-fatal) 10.8 (10.5 - 11.2) 11.7 (11.3 - 12.0) 32.7 (32.0 - 33.3) 5.8 (5.6 - 6.1) 13.2 (12.3 - 14.0) 13.0 (12.7 - 13.3)
Total events (both fatal and non-fatal) 16.9 (16.5 - 17.2) 16.7 (16.3 - 17.0) 37.0 (36.3 - 37.5) 18.0 (17.4 - 18.5) 13.9 (13.1 - 14.6) 18.1 (17.7 - 18.3)
Total costs* 17.3 (17.0 - 17.6) 17.1 (16.7 - 17.4) 37.3 (36.6 - 37.9) 18.9 (18.3 - 19.5) 13.9 (13.2 - 14.7) 18.4 (18.1 - 18.7)
Total DALY 16.1 (15.7 - 16.4) 13.8 (13.5 - 14.0) 36.6 (36.1 - 37.0) 13.4 (13.0 - 13.7) 13.6 (13.0 - 14.2) 15.5 (15.2 - 15.7)
Total PYLL 16.6 (16.3 - 16.9) 15.1 (14.8 - 15.4) 37.5 (36.9 - 38.0) 16.6 (16.1 - 17.1) 13.9 (13.2 - 14.6) 16.9 (16.6 - 17.1)
Men Tobacco use Overweight and Obesity High Blood pressure High cholesterol High glycemia Physical inactivity
Total AMI events (both fatal and non-fatal) 26.7 (26.2 - 27.1) 24.7 (24.1 - 25.2) 37.0 (36.4 - 37.6) 19.0 (18.3 - 19.6) 12.4 (11.8 - 13.0) 20.2 (19.8 - 20.6)
Total non-infarction events (both fatal and non-fatal) 23.1 (22.6 - 23.5) 22.3 (21.8 - 22.8) 40.1 (39.3 - 40.8) 19.3 (18.6 - 20.0) 13.5 (12.8 - 14.2) 20.6 (20.2 - 21.2)
Total stroke events (both fatal and non-fatal) 14.2 (13.7 - 14.7) 16.7 (16.0 - 17.3) 35.2 (34.3 - 36.0) 5.2 (4.9 - 5.5) 13.5 (12.6 - 14.4) 12.2 (11.7 - 12.6)
Total events (both fatal and non-fatal) 21.6 (21.1 - 22.0) 21.4 (20.9 - 21.9) 37.4 (36.7 - 38.1) 14.7 (14.1 - 15.2) 13.1 (12.4 - 13.8) 17.8 (17.4 - 18.2)
Total costs* 22.0 (21.6 - 22.5) 21.7 (21.2 - 22.2) 37.6 (36.8 - 38.2) 15.2 (14.7 - 15.8) 13.1 (12.4 - 13.8) 18.1 (17.7 - 18.6)
Total DALY 22.1 (21.6 - 22.6) 20.5 (20.1 - 20.9) 38.7 (38.1 - 39.3) 12.1 (11.7 - 12.6) 13.0 (12.3 - 13.7) 15.6 (15.3 - 16.0)
Total PYLL 21.6 (21.1 - 22.1) 20.7 (20.2 - 21.1) 38.7 (38.1 - 39.3) 13.4 (12.9 - 13.8) 13.1 (12.4 - 13.8) 16.5 (16.2 - 16.9)
Women Tobacco use Overweight and Obesity High Blood pressure High cholesterol High glycemia Physical inactivity
Total AMI events (both fatal and non-fatal) 11.9 (11.5 - 12.3) 11.0 (10.5 - 11.6) 42.4 (41.1 - 43.5) 41.0 (39.2 - 42.7) 17.7 (16.2 - 19.1) 22.6 (22.2 - 23.1)
Total non-infarction events (both fatal and non-fatal) 8.5 (8.0 - 9.0) 10.5 (9.9 - 11.2) 42.5 (40.7 - 44.0) 41.1 (38.4 - 43.1) 17.7 (15.8 - 19.6) 23.7 (23.1 - 24.2)
Total stroke events (both fatal and non-fatal) 7.1 (6.8 - 7.6) 6.1 (5.8 - 6.5) 29.9 (28.9 - 30.8) 6.6 (6.1 - 7.1) 12.8 (11.5 - 14.2) 14.0 (13.6 - 14.3)
Total events (both fatal and non-fatal) 8.6 (8.3 - 9.1) 8.4 (8.0 - 8.9) 36.2 (34.9 - 37.3) 23.8 (22.4 - 24.9) 15.2 (13.8 - 16.8) 18.6 (18.1 - 19.0)
Total costs* 8.8 (8.4 - 9.3) 8.7 (8.2 - 9.7) 36.8 (35.5 - 37.9) 25.5 (24.1 - 26.7) 15.5 (14.0 - 17.0) 19.0 (18.6 - 19.5)
Total DALY 10.5 (10.1 - 10.9) 7.6 (7.3 - 7.9) 34.5 (33.8 - 35.2) 14.5 (13.9 - 15.1) 14.1 (13.2 - 15.1) 15.3 (15.0 - 15.6)
Total PYLL 10.4 (10.0 - 10.8) 8.3 (7.9 - 8.7) 36.0 (35.0 - 36.9) 20.7 (19.7 - 21.6) 14.8 (13.6 - 16.0) 17.3 (16.9 - 17.6)
  1. Results of 1000 iterations, basal case, both sexes.
  2. 95%CI: 95% confidence interval, AMI: acute myocardial infarction, DALY: disability-adjusted life years, PYLL: Potential Years of Life Lost.
  3. * Only direct medical costs by hospitalization were considered.
  4. † With discounting (3% annual rate), without age weight.
  5. ‡ With discounting (3% annual rate).