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Table 3 Multivariate Estimation of the Association of Health Literacy with Health Status and Health Care Utilization (N = 1180)

From: Health literacy, health status, and healthcare utilization of Taiwanese adults: results from a national survey

  Physical Health Mental Health Outpatient clinic visit ER visit Hospitalization
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Health Literacya           
   Marginal 1.02 (0.74-1.42) 1.05 (0.77-1.44) 0.89 (0.61-1.29) 1.15 (0.70-1.91) 0.60 (0.27-1.32)
   Inadequate 0.82 (0.50-1.33) 0.62* (0.39-0.99) 0.79 (0.45-1.39) 1.08 (0.51-2.27) 1.22 (0.47-3.06)
Age (years)b 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 1.01* (1.00-1.02) 1.03* (1.02-1.04) 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 1.13* (1.01-1.06)
Malec 1.32* (1.06-1.64) 1.08 (0.87-1.33) 0.68* (0.52-0.87) 0.97 (0.68-1.38) 0.94 (0.57-1.55)
Education (years)b 1.03 (0.99-1.07) 1.02 (0.98-1.06) 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 1.02 (0.96-1.09) 1.09* (1.00-1.18)
Household Incomed           
   51-75% of average 1.25 (0.91-1.73) 1.21 (0.88-1.65) 1.12 (0.77-1.62) 0.96 (0.58-1.58) 0.78 (0.39-1.56)
   76-100% of average 1.33 (0.93-1.89) 1.50* (1.06-2.11) 1.15 (0.76-1.74) 0.85 (0.48-1.50) 0.90 (0.43-1.91)
   >100% of average 1.52* (1.10-2.09) 1.36* (1.00-1.85) 1.22 (0.84-1.76) 0.0 (0.48-1.34) 0.44* (0.20-0.93)
Residential Locatione           
   Mid-size city 0.98 (0.73-1.32) 0.91 (0.68-1.22) 0.94 (0.67-1.31) 0.88 (0.54-1.43) 1.18 (0.57-2.46)
   Small-size city 1.00 (0.72-1.40) 0.88 (0.64-1.23) 1.32 (0.89-1.96) 1.01 (0.59-1.73) 1.21 (0.54-2.70)
   Rural/remote area 0.89 (0.63-1.27) 0.77 (0.54-1.08) 1.60* (1.06-2.42) 1.05 (0.60-1.82) 1.98 (0.91-4.33)
Physical Healthf           
   Poor      0.53 (0.10-2.75) 0.38 (0.12-1.21) 0.15* (0.04-0.58)
   Average      0.24 (0.05-1.21) 0.26* (0.08-0.83) 0.06* (0.01-0.22)
   Good      0.14* (0.03-0.74) 0.13* (0.04-0.45) 0.06* (0.01-0.26)
   Excellent      0.09* (0.02-0.51) 0.16* (0.04-0.62) 0.04* (0.01-0.20)
Mental Healthf           
   Poor      0.55 (0.10-3.16) 1.23 (0.28-5.46) 4.49 (0.59-34.11)
   Average      0.70 (0.12-4.02) 0.90 (0.20-4.12) 4.42 (0.55-35.56)
   Good      0.82 (0.14-4.79) 1.21 (0.26-5.65) 2.84 (0.33-24.40)
   Excellent      0.79 (0.13-4.70) 0.94 (0.18-4.80) 4.97 (0.53-47.01)
  1. * p <0.05.
  2. a "Adequate health literacy" is the comparison.
  3. b The interval form of the variable, measured in year, is used.
  4. c "Female" is the comparison.
  5. d "≤50% of average" is the comparison.
  6. e "Metropolitcan city" is the comparison.
  7. f "Very poor" is the comparison.