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Table 1 Socio-demographic Attributes and Health Literacy Level of a National Sample of Adults in Taiwan, 2008

From: Health literacy, health status, and healthcare utilization of Taiwanese adults: results from a national survey

  N % MHLS Score Inadequate HL Marginal HL Adequate HL X2-test
p-value
    mean (SD) N % N % N %  
Entire Sample 1493 100.0 39.2 (14,8) 205 13.7 247 16.5 1041 69.7  
Age <0.001
   18-24 years 149 10.0 45.0 (6.2) 4 2.7 16 10.7 129 86.6  
   25-39 years 456 30.5 45.0 (6.6) 12 2.6 48 10.5 396 86.8  
   40-49 years 292 19.6 43.9 (7.1) 10 3.4 47 16.1 235 80.5  
   50-64 years 358 24.0 38.1 (14.8) 52 14.5 80 22.4 226 63.1  
   ≥65 years 237 15.9 20.6 (20.2) 126 53.2 56 23.6 53 23.2  
Gender 0.07
   Male 736 49.3 40.0 (13.5) 91 12.4 136 18.5 509 69.2  
   Female 757 50.7 38.5 (15.9) 114 15.1 111 14.7 532 70.3  
Years of Schooling <0.001
   0 year 105 7.0 0.3 (3.4) 104 99.0 1 0.9 0 0.0  
   1-6 years 246 16.5 30.3 (17.6) 73 29.7 90 36.6 83 33.7  
   7-12 years 597 40.0 42.8 (6.8) 28 4.7 131 21.9 438 73.4  
   13-16 years 481 32.2 46.7 (2.8) 0 0.0 24 5.0 457 95.0  
   ≥17 years 64 4.3 48.0 (2.4) 0 0.0 1 1.6 63 98.4  
Household Income a <0.001b
   ≤50% of average 342 22.9 32.4 (18.4) 93 27.2 81 23.7 168 49.1  
   51-75% of average 252 16.9 41.4 (11.6) 23 9.1 44 17.5 185 73.4  
   76-100% of average 193 12.9 43.6 (9.4) 10 5.2 23 11.9 160 82.9  
   >100% of average 393 26.3 45.3 (6.5) 7 1.8 40 10.2 346 88.0  
   Missing 313 21.0 34.7(18.0) 72 23.0 59 18.9 182 58.2  
Residential Location <0.001
   Metropolitan city 367 24.6 42.0 (12.4) 28 7.6 50 13.6 289 78.8  
   Mid-size city 509 34.1 41.2 (12.1) 45 8.8 96 18.9 368 72.3  
   Small city 324 21.7 38.8 (15.0) 48 14.8 52 16.1 224 69.1  
   Rural/remote area 292 19.6 32.7 (19.1) 84 28.8 49 16.8 159 54.4  
  1. a The national average of annual household income in 2007 was around NT$923,875. (Source: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan. Report on the Survey of Family Income and Expenditure in Taiwan Area of Republic of China.).