Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to global sleep quality, general perceived stress and sleep duration*

From: Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES)

  Global Sleep Quality Score P for trend
  High Quality Sleep
(lowest tertile)
Medium Quality Sleep
(medium tertile)
Low Quality Sleep
(upper tertile)
 
Score Range 0 - 4 5 - 7 8 - 19  
N 576 403 536  
Age     0.13
   < 50 years 206 (35.8) 170 (42.2) 205 (38.3)  
   ≥ 50 years 370 (64.2) 233 (57.8) 331 (61.7)  
Gender     <0.0001
   Men 182 (31.6) 133 (33.0) 112 (20.9)  
   Women 394 (68.4) 270 (67.0) 424 (79.1)  
BMI, kg/m2     <0.0001
   ≤ 25 162 (29.4) 90 (23.2) 122 (23.6)  
   > 25 and < 30 215 (39.0) 146 (37.6) 152 (29.3)  
   ≥ 30 174 (31.6) 152 (39.2) 244 (47.1)  
Smoking Status     0.05
   Current Smoker 76 (13.3) 53 (13.2) 101 (18.9)  
   Former Smoker 118 (20.7) 89 (22.1) 97 (18.1)  
   Non-smoker 377 (66.0) 260 (64.7) 337 (63.0)  
Physical Activity§     <0.0001
   Yes 461 (80.4) 286 (71.0) 374 (70.0)  
   No 112 (19.6) 117 (29.0) 160 (30.0)  
Education#     0.02
   Less than HS 53 (9.2) 28 (7.0) 68 (12.8)  
   HS graduate 132 (23.0) 101 (25.0) 138 (25.9)  
   More than HS 390 (67.8) 274 (70.0) 326 (61.3)  
Hypertension     0.17
   Yes 314 (54.5) 225 (56.1) 320 (60.0)  
   No 262 (45.5) 176 (43.9) 213 (40.0)  
Diabetes     0.02
   Yes 92 (16.0) 54 (13.5) 108 (20.3)  
   No 484 (84.0) 345 (86.5) 425 (79.7)  
High Cholesterol     0.02
   Yes 200 (34.8) 154 (38.6) 226 (43.1)  
   No 375 (65.2) 245 (61.4) 299 (56.9)  
History of MI     0.0003
   Yes 30 (5.2) 14 (3.5) 51 (9.6)  
   No 545 (94.8) 388 (96.5) 482 (90.4)  
Financial Stress     <0.0001
   Lowest tertile 272 (47.2) 132 (32.8) 126 (23.5)  
   Middle tertile 186 (32.3) 131 (32.6) 155 (29.9)  
   Upper tertile 118 (20.5) 139 (34.6) 255 (47.6)  
Total Family Income     <0.0001
   < 25 k 111 (21.5) 83 (22.6) 166 (34.5)  
   ≥25 k and <50 k 167 (32.3) 105 (28.6) 143 (29.7)  
   ≥50 k and <75 k 87 (16.8) 73 (19.89) 94 (19.5)  
   ≥75 k 152 (29.4) 106 (28.9) 78 (16.22)  
  General Perceived Stress Score P for trend
  Low Stress
(lowest tertile)
Medium Stress
(middle tertile)
High Stress
(highest tertile)
 
N 517 523 475  
Age     0.01
   < 50 years 171 (34.1) 204 (39.5) 203 (43.2)  
   ≥50 years 331 (65.9) 312 (60.5) 267 (56.8)  
Gender     0.8
   Men 162 (31.3) 150 (28.7) 115 (24.2)  
   Women 355 (68.7) 373 (71.3) 360 (75.8)  
BMI, kg/m2     0.06
   ≤25 130 (27.0) 127 (25.8) 103 (22.5)  
   >25 and <30 186 (38.6) 162 (32.9) 160 (34.9)  
   ≥30 166 (34.4) 203 (41.3) 195 (42.6)  
Smoking Status     0.004
   Current Smoker 64 (12.5) 61 (11.7) 105 (22.2)  
   Former Smoker 120 (23.4) 110 (21.1) 74 (15.6)  
   Non-smoker 329 (64.1) 350 (67.2) 295 (62.2)  
Physical Activity§     0.003
   Yes 407 (79.2) 398 (76.2) 316 (66.7)  
   No 107 (20.8) 124 (23.8) 158 (33.3)  
Education#     <0.0001
   Less than HS 34 (6.8) 40 (7.8) 67 (14.3)  
   HS graduate 90 (19.9) 112 (21.8) 158 (33.8)  
   More than HS 377 (15.3) 362 (70.4) 243 (51.9)  
Hypertension     0.2
   Yes 274 (53.1) 292 (56.0) 293 (61.9)  
   No 242 (46.9) 229 (44.0) 180 (38.1)  
Diabetes     0.7
   Yes 78 (15.1) 82 (15.7) 94 (20.0)  
   No 438 (84.9) 439 (84.3) 377 (80.0)  
High Cholesterol     0.7
   Yes 190 (37.1) 196 (37.7) 194 (41.5)  
   No 322 (62.9) 324 (62.3) 273 (58.5)  
History of MI     0.03
   Yes 27 (5.2) 34 (6.5) 34 (7.2)  
   No 488 (94.8) 489 (93.5) 438 (92.8)  
Financial Stress     <0.0001
   Lowest tertile 281 (55.9) 170 (32.9) 65 (13.8)  
   Middle tertile 154 (30.7) 194 (37.6) 118 (25.1)  
   Upper tertile 67 (13.4) 152 (29.5) 287 (61.1)  
Total Family Income     <0.0001
   < 25 k 75 (16.3) 118 (25.4) 163 (38.4)  
   ≥ 25 k and < 50 k 138 (30.0) 127 (27.3) 143 (33.6)  
   ≥ 50 k and < 75 k 98 (21.3) 90 (19.3) 63 (14.8)  
   ≥ 75 k 149 (32.4) 130 (28.0) 56 (13.2)  
  Sleep Duration Categories ± P for trend
  > 7 hrs 6-7 hrs 5-6 hrs < 5 hrs
N 307 341 707 157
Age     0.003
   < 50 years 115 (37.5) 129 (37.8) 279 (39.5) 56 (35.7)
   ≥ 50 years 192 (62.5) 212 (62.2) 428 (60.5) 101 (64.3)
Gender     0.2
   Men 74 (24.1) 106 (31.1) 207 (29.3) 39 (24.8)
   Women 233 (75.9) 235 (68.9) 500 (70.7) 118 (75.2)
BMI, kg/m2     0.03
   ≤ 25 90 (30.6) 88 (27.0) 165 (24.2) 30 (19.7)
   > 25 and < 30 104 (35.4) 122 (37.4) 240 (35.2) 47 (30.9)
   ≥ 30 100 (34.0) 116 (35.6) 277 (40.6) 75 (49.4)
Smoking Status     0.04
   Current Smoker 52 (17.0) 42 (12.4) 102 (14.5) 33 (21.2)
   Former Smoker 53 (17.3) 82 (24.2) 147 (20.9) 22 (14.1)
   Non-smoker 201 (65.7) 215 (63.4) 455 (64.6) 101 (64.7)
Physical Activity§     0.03
   Yes 226 (74.1) 266 (78.0) 523 (74.3) 103 (65.6)
   No 79 (25.9) 75 (22.0) 181 (25.7) 54 (34.4)
Education#     0.07
   Less than HS 35 (11.4) 32 (9.4) 57 (8.1) 25 (16.0)
   HS graduate 77 (25.2) 81 (23.7) 170 (24.1) 41 (26.3)
   More than HS 194 (63.4) 228 (66.9) 477 (67.8) 90 (57.7)
Hypertension     0.3
   Yes 166 (54.3) 191 (56.0) 399 (56.8) 100 (63.7)
   No 140 (45.7) 150 (44.0) 304 (43.2) 57 (36.3)
Diabetes     0.004
   Yes 58 (19.1) 46 (13.5) 109 (15.5) 40 (25.5)
   No 246 (80.9) 295 (86.5) 594 (84.5) 117 (74.5)
High Cholesterol     0.06
   Yes 108 (35.3) 117 (34.5) 286 (41.0) 68 (44.2)
   No 198 (64.7) 222 (65.5) 411 (59.0) 86 (55.8)
History of MI     0.007
   Yes 24 (7.9) 10 (2.9) 44 (6.2) 16 (10.3)
   No 281 (92.1) 331 (97.1) 662 (93.8) 139 (89.7)
Financial Stress     <0.0001
   Lowest tertile 118 (38.6) 141 (41.4) 237 (33.5) 33 (21.0)
   Middle tertile 102 (33.3) 113 (33.1) 214 (30.3) 42 (26.8)
   Upper tertile 86 (28.1) 87 (25.5) 256 (36.2) 82 (52.2)
Total Family Income     <0.0001
   < 25 k 85 (31.4) 67 (21.8) 151 (23.3) 55 (40.7)
   ≥ 25 k and < 50 k 86 (34.0) 86 (28.0) 201 (31.0) 36 (26.7)
   ≥ 50 k and < 75 k 37 (13.6) 64 (20.9) 130 (20.0) 23 (17.0)
   ≥ 75 k 57 (21.0) 90 (29.3) 167 (25.7) 21 (15.6)
  1. * Number and percentage for categorical variables; mean and standard deviation for continuous variables;
  2. §Self reported physical activities or exercises such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening or walking (outside of regular job);
  3. Ever told by a doctor, nurse or any health care provider;
  4. Calculated with a chi-square test;
  5. #Classified in less than a high school (HS) graduate, a HS graduate and more than a HS graduate;
  6. ±Three participants did not answer the related question.