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Table 2 Cardiovascular risk factors in relation to social status indicators.

From: Social status and cardiovascular disease: a Mediterranean case. Results from the Italian Progetto CUORE cohort study

MEN

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL

MARITAL STATUS

 

High

Medium

Low

Married or Cohabitating

Other living arrangements

 

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

mean (s.d.)

Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)*

137.5 (17.3)

139.3 (18.8)

138.0 (19.3)

138.6 (18.5)

139.9 (19.5)

Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)*

86.0 (10.3)°

87.0 (11.1)

87.2 (11.2)

86.8 (10.8)

86.8 (11.8)

Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)*

226.2 (43.0)°

226.4 (46.6)'

222.2 (42.5)

224.8 ( 44.0)

224.0 (45.1)

HDL Cholesterol (mg/dl)

49.8 (12.9)

50.6 (14.4)

49.7 (13.7)

50.2 (13.7)

50.8 (14.2)

Triglycerides (mg/dl)*

141.9 (93.4)°

149.5 (115.2)'

160.8 (112.8)

151.7 (106.6)

156.7 (121.9)

BMI (kg/m2)*^

26.3 (3.4)°

26.6 (3.6)'

27.0 (3.7)

26.8 (3.6)

26.3 (3.7)

Cardiovascular risk score§*^

7.4 (3.6)°

7.7 (4.6)

7.9 (6.3)

7.7 (5.0)

8.2 (5.7)

 

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

Diabetes (Yes/No)*^

85 (4.6)°

106 (5.2)'

233 (6.8)

370 (5.5)

58 (7.6)

Smoke (Yes/No)*

760 (31.0)°

815 (39.3)'

1371 (47.5)

2639 (39.7)

344 (41.7)

Antihypertensive Medication (Yes/No)*

164 (11.0)°

193 (10.8)'

334 (8.7)

622 (9.5)

77 (10.1)

  1. Men 35-69 years-old, free of previous CVD.
  2. Age-adjusted means and percentages using European Population 1995. s.d.=standard deviation.
  3. *p < 0.05. ANOVA for continuous variables (test F) and Chi-squared test for categorical variables among educational levels. Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was used: High vs Medium; ° High vs Low; ' Medium vs Low.
  4. ^ p < 0.05. ANOVA for continuous variables (test F) and Chi-squared Test for categorical variables among marital status categories.
  5. § Cardiovascular risk score calculated using Progetto CUORE Study equation.